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Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine

Kharkov State Veterinary Academy

Department of Epizootology and Veterinary Management

Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage

The course and clinical manifestation

Diagnostics and differential diagnostics

Immunity, specific prevention

Carp aeromonosis (Eng. - Infectiousdropsyincarp, rubella, bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia, infectious abdominal dropsy) is an infectious disease characterized by abdominal dropsy, erosion of scales, exophthalmos, serous hemorrhagic dermatitis and the formation of ulcers on the body of fish.

Historical background, distribution tinjury, degree of danger tand and damage

The study of carp aero monomonosity has a long history, which is related to the divergence of views on its etiology, in connection with which the disease was given different names, based on clinical and anatomical signs. For the first time it became known as German rubella (Plen, 1904), then as an infectious abdominal dropsy (Sheperklaus, 1930), and in Russia - rubella of carps (Scherbina, 1935, etc.). Recently, on the basis of virological and bacteriological studies, it has been concluded that the above names are collective, combining diseases caused by various pathogens. Therefore, from the rubella complex, according to the etiological factor, aeromonosis (rubella), pseudomonosis, spring viremia and erythrodermatitis of cyprinid fish were distinguished.

Carp aeromonosis is widespread in most European countries and is found in water bodies in South America and India. In Russia, rubella (aeromonosis) was first registered in 1933 and still causes great damage to carp farming due to the death of fish and high costs for the rehabilitation of fish farms.

The disease is caused by pathogenic strains of the bacterium Aeromonashydrophila. Some authors include other types of aeromonads (A. sobria and A. caviae). This is a short gram-negative oxide-positive mobile stick with a polar flagellum. Optional aerobes, spores and capsules do not form. It grows on ordinary nutrient media at a temperature of 20 ... 30 ° C (optimum 25 ° C). Virulent strains have hemolytic properties; during experimental infection, carps and white mice die. Bacteria persist for a long time in dysfunctional reservoirs, die when dried and exposed to conventional disinfectants.

Carp, carp and their hybrids from the age of yearlings to producers are affected by aeromonosis; silver carp, tench, grass carp, bream, roach and some other cyprinids are also susceptible. In the southern regions, yearlings are more often affected, and in the central and northwestern regions, two-year-olds, three-year-olds, and carp producers are sick.

The source of the causative agent of the infection is sick fish, their excreta and corpses, as well as bacterial carriers. The disease is transmitted through the contact of sick fish with healthy ones, through contaminated water and feed, with fishing gear, equipment, containers, overalls, waterfowl, as well as blood-sucking parasites (leeches, gnats).

Acute outbreaks of aeromonosis appear in the spring-summer period at a temperature of 15 ... 25 ° C, by the fall the epizootic fades and the disease takes on a subacute and chronic course. The development of the disease is facilitated by the dense landing and trauma of fish, the weakening of their body resistance and adverse conditions in ponds.

Penetrating into the body of fish, bacteria spread blood to all organs and tissues, cause septicemia in the acute course of inspection. Biotoxins secreted by them have a pathogenic effect on the vascular walls, cells and tissues, which leads to serous-hemorrhagic inflammation of the skin, exudate sweating in loose fiber and abdominal cavity, dystrophic and necrobiotic changes in parenchymal organs. In the future, as the virulence of the pathogen decreases, the infectious process passes into the subacute and chronic stages, which is clinically expressed by the change in the ascites form of the disease to ascites and ulcerative.

Course and clinically aboute manifestation

The duration of the incubation period is 3 ... 30 days. There are acute, subacute and chronic course of the disease with a sequential transition from one stage to another.

Acute course It is accompanied by mass death of fish and is characterized by serous-hemorrhagic inflammation of the skin, abdominal dropsy, and eye-glaze. Sick fish are depressed, stay at the surface of the water in the coastal zone. On the abdomen, fins, lateral walls of the trunk, extensive redness, focal and diffuse ruffling of scales are visible, and in mirror carps vesicles filled with a clear or bloody liquid are visible. The abdomen is enlarged in volume, fluctuates, with a puncture, exudate of straw-yellow color follows, often with a bloody hue. In some fish, protrusion of the anus and hyperemia of the anal ring are observed.

Subacute course characterized by a decrease in fish mortality, a gradual weakening of inflammatory-exudative processes and the appearance on the fish body of ulcers of various sizes and shapes, bordered by a bright pink or grayish rim.

Chronic course observed at the end of the outbreak (autumn, winter and spring), as well as in stationary dysfunctional farms. In this case, the death of the fish stops, some of them recover, characteristic is the presence of only ulcers on the body, often penetrating into the deeper layers of the muscles, up to exposing the bones. In recovering fish, ulcers heal with the formation of scars, which lead to deformation of the trunk and caudal stem.

There are ascites, ulcerative and ascites ulcerative forms. The ascites form (acute course) is characterized by a deep focal or diffuse serous-hemorrhagic dermatomyositis, ascites, peritonitis, and hematitis. On the surface of the body, large-spotted redness, focal or diffuse erosion of scales, single or double-sided buccal eye are found. Ascites is manifested by the accumulation in the abdominal cavity of a large amount of clear, turbid or gelatinous fluid (exudate) with a bloody tint, serous peritonitis and adhesive inflammation of the internal organs are often noted.

The liver is pale with a yellowish tinge, spotty hyperemic, flabby, with hepatopancreatitis. The spleen and kidneys are loose, increased in volume due to inflammatory edema, hematopoietic tissue hyperplasia, as well as glomerulonephritis. Desquamative catarrh is noted in the intestine, pericarditis in the heart, and signs of edema and purulent encephalitis in the brain.

With an ulcerative form (chronic course) - superficial and deep ulcers on the body, having a crater-like shape with a red rim and a gray-reddish bottom. When ulcers heal, dark purple scars are visible. Internal organs without significant changes. Sclerosis of parenchyma and cirrhosis are noted in the liver.

The ascites ulcerative form (subacute course) is characterized by a combination of signs of ascites and ulcer forms and, depending on this, the prevalence of inflammatory-degenerative or proliferative processes in organs.

Diagnostics and differential diagnostics

The diagnosis of aeromonosis is made according to the results of bacteriological studies, taking into account epizootological data, clinical signs and pathological changes. Only live sick fish are sent to the laboratory; blood and samples of parenchymal organs are taken for bacteriological culture. Mandatory staging of a bioassay on susceptible fish to determine the virulence of isolated aeromonads. Carp aeromonosis is differentiated from spring viremia, pseudomonosis, erythrodermatitis and other diseases accompanied by redness of the skin.

Carps and other fish develop post-infection immunity lasting up to 1 year.

IN the prevention of aero monosis are of paramount importance: protective and restrictive measures during the transportation and placement of fish in farms, preventive quarantine of producers and repair fish, landing of imported fish juveniles in specially designated ponds, targeted breeding of carp species resistant to aero monosis, proper feeding of fish, optimization of animal health conditions by periodic flying of ponds, reclamation, freezing and drying of their bed, veterinary monitoring of fish health. Of the special agents, the use of probiotics is recommended; vaccines are being developed.

Antibacterial agents from different groups are used to treat fish: antibiotics (chloramphenicol, biomycin, dibiomycin, ba-tsilikhin, etc.), nitrofuran (furazolidone, furagin) and fluoroquinolines (antibacterial) drugs. Commodity fish that received antibiotics and nitrofuran drugs are allowed to write in 30 ... 45 days, antibacterial - 7 days after the cessation of treatment.

When aeromonosis occurs, quarantine restrictions are imposed on fish farms and natural reservoirs. Improvement is carried out by flying ponds or an integrated method.

Flying consists in the complete cessation of the fish-breeding process: in the autumn, ponds are lowered, all fish are caught, conditionally healthy fish are sold in the distribution network without restrictions, preventing them from entering other water bodies. After cleaning the ulcers, the chronically ill fish is sent to prepare culinary products, and with signs of the ascites form of the disease, it is disposed of or used for animal feed in boiled form. During the year, ponds are cleaned of sludge, disinfection of hydraulic structures with quicklime (25 kg / ha) or bleach (3 ... 5 kg / ha) lime, the bed is frozen, dried, plowed and sown with herbs, vegetables, etc. Disinfect fishing gear, containers, overalls. After veterinary and sanitary measures, ponds are stocked with healthy fish.

When recovering by the integrated method, permanent workers, separate equipment are assigned to dysfunctional ponds, fish are treated, the disinfection of the bed and hydraulic structures, work clothes, equipment, containers is carried out, the water pH is increased by adding quicklime to the water at the rate of 100 ... 150 kg / ha of the water area, immune herd of fish.

The quarantine is removed from the farm 1 year after the last case of fish disease and the negative result of industrial bioassay - the joint cultivation of local and imported healthy fish in healthy ponds.

Bibliography

1. Bakulov I.A. Epizootology with microbiology Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1987. - 415 p.

2. Infectious diseases of animals / B.F. Bessarabov, A.A., E.S. Voronin et al., Ed. A.A. Sidorchuk. - M .: KolosS, 2007 .-- 671 s.

3. Altukhov N.N. A quick reference to a veterinarian Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1990. - 574 p.

4. Dovіdnik lіkar veterinary medicine / P.I. Verbitsky, P.P. Dostoevsky. - K .: "Harvest", 2004. - 1280 p.

5. Reference veterinarian / A.F. Kuznetsov. - Moscow: Doe, 2002. - 896 p.

6. Reference veterinarian / P.P. Dostoevsky, N.A. Sudakov, V.A. Atamas et al. - K .: Harvest, 1990 .-- 784 p.

7. Gavrish V.G. Handbook of a veterinarian, 4th ed. Rostov-on-Don: "Phoenix", 2003. - 576 p.

Etiology

The infection can be entered into a safe body of water when a sick or infected fish is launched, with food, plankton, waterfowl, and the pathogen can also be introduced with water.

Aeromonads are short bacteria rounded at the ends, which are facultative (non-strict) anaerobes. Bacteria are not capable of forming capsules and spores. They reproduce well at temperatures from + 22 ° C to + 30 ° C. Optimum for active reproduction of bacteria is an ambient temperature of + 25 ° C. In this regard, the main outbreaks of aeromonosis are observed in the spring-summer period when water is heated to the indicated temperatures. Starting in the fall, the disease gradually fades, becoming lingering, chronic.

Aeromonosis is accompanied by a significant departure of cyprinids, however, having recovered, the occurrence of unstable immunity to reinfestation is characteristic.

Symptoms

The incubation period during infection with virulent strains of aeromonads lasts from 3 to 30 days. After this time, note:

inactivity, accumulation of sick individuals near the shore and near the surface of the water, hemorrhagic lesions and ulcers on the skin, ruffling of scales, abdominal dropsy.
The disease proceeds in acute, subacute, chronic forms. The acute form of the disease leads to death within 15-30 days.

In addition to the symptoms described, sick carp may have eye-eyes, ulceration on the skin, and necrosis of the fins. The addition of a secondary pathogenic microflora leads to the development of purulent-putrefactive inflammation in areas of erosion.

Diagnosis of spring viremia, aeromonosis of carp fish. Analysis of epizootological data, detection of clinical signs and pathological changes. Prophylactic drugs for branchiomycosis. Improving zoohygienic conditions for keeping fish.

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Pathological changes and diagnosis

First of all, attention is drawn to the appearance of the dead fish - the presence of hemorrhagic inflammation on the skin, bloating, erosion of scales, exophthalmos (exfoliation). An autopsy reveals necrosis of skeletal muscles, areas of catarrhal or hemorrhagic inflammation in the intestine, a sagging liver, often of a discolored color, and an overflow of the gallbladder.

In the abdominal cavity, the presence of a bloody or transparent liquid, sometimes taking the form of a gelatinous mass, is noted. On the pericardium, areas of point hemorrhage.

The described changes are characteristic of an acute and, to a lesser extent, subacute course. With a chronic form, changes are often not detected in the internal organs. The chronic course is characterized mainly by skin manifestations and often ends with the recovery of the fish within 2-3 months.

The diagnosis is made by the totality of epizootic data, clinical signs, results of postmortem autopsy. The preliminary diagnosis is clarified with the help of a laboratory study, including bacteriological culture, isolation of a pure culture of the pathogen, staging a biological sample. In addition to fish, laboratory mice are susceptible to artificial infection with aeromonads.

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Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation

Department of Science and Technology Policy and Education

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics

Department of Epizootology, Parasitology and Microbiology

Subject: Epizootology and Infectious Diseases

Abstract on the topic:

"Laboratory diagnostics. Treatment and prophylactic drugs for fish infectious diseases"

Finished: student of 552 group

Bataeva Ekaterina Rikhardovna

Checked: Honored Worker of the Higher School of the Russian Federation,

Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Professor

Burdeyny Vasily Vladimirovich

1. Laboratory diagnosis of spring viremia of carps (VVK)

2. Laboratory diagnosis of carp fish aeromonosis

3. Laboratory diagnosis of branchiomycosis

4. Therapeutic and prophylactic preparations for spring viremia of carps (VVK)

5. Therapeutic and prophylactic preparations for the apronomy of cyprinids

6. Therapeutic and prophylactic preparations for branchiomycosis (gill rot)

List of references

1. Laboratory diagnosis of spring viremia of carps (VVK)

Carp spring viremia - a viral disease of some species of pond fish, characterized by an acute course with the manifestation of body edema, erosion of scales, single or double-sided exfoliation, the presence of pinpoint or focal hemorrhages at the base of the pectoral and abdominal fins.

A preliminary diagnosis of IHC is made on the basis of an analysis of epizootological data, detected clinical signs and pathological changes. The final diagnosis is based on the results of a virological study on the isolation and serological identification of the virus. IHCs are differentiated from pseudomonosis and aeromonosis, guided by the provisions of the relevant instructions.

Virological work - sampling and processing of samples, isolation and identification of the virus, bioassay and serological studies - is carried out in accordance with the "Instructions for the application of traditional methods for the diagnosis of viral infections of fish".

After delivery of the selected material to the laboratory, they immediately proceed to its processing.

For virological studies, material is taken from clinically ill fish during an epizootic period at a water temperature of 11-17 ° C. At the same time, the selection of material is carried out in the absence of disease on the farm in the case of studies of fish grown in it for virus carriage. To isolate the virus, the collected materials inoculate the EPC cell culture. The inoculated culture is incubated at 21-22 ° C.

Identification of the isolated virus is carried out in a neutralization reaction using hyperimmune serum. When working with epizootic material, the formulation of the reaction is combined with the isolation of the virus. An EPC cell line is used in the reaction.

For the diagnosis of VVC, it is necessary not only to isolate and identify the virus during the period of epizootic, but also to show that its content in fish tissues was at an epizootically significant level (not lower than 105 TCD50 / g) and, more importantly, to prove its etiological role by reproducing the disease and the death of fish in a bioassay. The latter condition is of particular importance in the context of a significant fluctuation in virulence in field isolates of the virus and the existence of other diseases with similar clinical manifestations.

A biological sample with isolated virus is placed on yearlings or year-olds of carp weighing 20–40 and 5–10 g, respectively. After infection, the water temperature is raised to 13–15 ° C during the day. In case of experimental infection by the method of baths or intraperitoneal injection of virus-containing material, the incubation period is 4-10 days.

In the summer, if necessary, a preliminary assessment of the epizootic situation in the farms by IHC is carried out by serological examination of farmed fish.

Blood sera are taken from biennial or three-year-old carp 1.5-2 months after an epizootic or a period of favorable temperatures for the development of infection (if there is no disease). This is usually done in the middle or end of June.

The reaction is carried out using the complement of fish, which increases the sensitivity of the method for detecting antibodies to the virus of IHC on average 10 times. The source of complement is fresh normal blood serum of carp, which is introduced into the composition of the working dilution of the virus in an amount of 20%. The reaction uses an FHM cell culture as highly sensitive in detecting fish antibodies to the virus. The inoculated culture is incubated at 21-22 ° C.

The detection of virus-neutralizing antibodies in fish sera is the basis for a preliminary conclusion about the dysfunction of the economy (reservoir) and conducting direct virological studies in it in the spring of next year.

2. Laboratory diagnosis of carp fish aeromonosis

Carp aeromonosis (carp rubella, hemorrhagic septicemia, infectious abdominal dropsy, Lublin disease) - an infectious disease of carp fish, characterized by inflammation of the skin, foci of hemorrhage, dropsy, erosion of scales, exfoliating, hydration of muscle tissue and all internal organs. Register in all countries of Western and Eastern Europe, South America and India.

For bacteriological research, only live sick fish is taken. In each case, at least 5 fish specimens with signs of the disease are examined.

2.1. Sowing is carried out from ascites fluid, liver, kidneys, spleen, from blood (separately from each sample) onto plates with MPA (pH 7.2-7.4).

The disease is characterized by a septic course, therefore, in crops from the blood and parenchymal organs, as a rule, an abundant growth of the pathogen culture.

Sowing can be done with an inoculation loop, immersing it in the examined organ and turning it several times, or with tweezers with curved branches.

Crops are incubated at 25-26 ° C for 48-72 hours. On MPA, bacteria of the genus Psudomonas form colorless or grayish-white translucent, round convex colonies with smooth edges. On the 3-4th day, the formation of a yellow-green or orange-yellow fluorescent pigment is noted. Ps. cyprinisepticum and some strains of Ps. fluorescens can form mucous colonies.

If a characteristic growth is detected on agar, the suspicious colonies are subcultured on Kligler's medium and after 18 hours of culture, which give an alkaline reaction on this medium (the column and the beveled surface turns crimson), they are further studied. To differentiate pathogens of the genus Pseudomonas from bacteria of similar genera (Table 1), oxidase activity and the ability to break down glucose in a Hugh-Leifson medium (oxidation-fermentation test) are determined.

To determine the oxidase activity, a drop of a mixture of reagents of a 1% aqueous solution of dimethylparaphenylenediamine (hydrochloride or oxalate) and a 1% solution (a-naphthol and 60 ° rectified alcohol is applied to a small area of ​​the beveled surface with the culture. Oxide-positive colonies are colored blue after 30-60 seconds Oxidase-negative cultures are not investigated further.

When conducting the oxidation-fermentation test (O / F), the test culture is seeded with an injection to the bottom in a test tube with 6 ml of Hugh-Leifson medium. Crops are incubated for 96 hours at 25-26 ° C. The causative agents of pseudomonosis oxidize glucose under aerobic conditions; therefore, the medium in the upper layers becomes straw yellow, the lower layer remains unchanged; fermentation does not occur.

In case of doubtful results of the oxidation-fermentation test, additional studies of decarboxylase activity of the isolated cultures are carried out. The test culture is seeded in four test tubes with Meller or Birger-Krushinsky medium, in three of which one of the amino acids (arginine, lysine, ornithine) is added, the fourth is the control. Then, sterile liquid paraffin (about 1 ml) is layered on the surface of the medium. Crops are incubated for 4 days at 25-26 ° C. The causative agents of pseudomonosis possess arginine dehydrolase, but do not decarboxylate lysine and ornithine, as a result of which the color of the Birger-Krushinsky medium in a test tube with arginine turns blue. The color of the Meller medium changes to violet, with a weak reaction it becomes bluish-gray.

To determine the species affiliation of cultures, seeding is carried out on Giss medium with mannitol, sucrose, maltose, lactose.

The motility of the culture is determined by sowing on the medium of Hugh-Leifson. Mobile cultures grow diffusely, causing turbidity of the whole medium, motionless - strictly by injection (Ps. Fluorescenc f. Capsulata).

3.1. A biological sample is put on 6-10 clinically healthy fish of the same species and age, from which the culture of the pathogen, imported from a farm that is safe for this disease, is isolated.

A two-day broth culture is administered to 4-6 fish intramuscularly and 4-6 fish intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.3 ml. Fishes weighing more than 150 g are injected with 0.5 ml of culture. The temperature of the water in the aquarium where infected fish is kept should be between 15-25 ° C.

At the same time, they control 6-10 fish, which are administered sterile MPB in the same doses. The observation period is 16 days.

In case of manifestation of the disease or death of fish, bacteriological examination is carried out.

A biological test is considered positive if all infected fish become ill and at least 50% of them die with signs of pseudomonosis, and the original culture is isolated from the blood and internal organs.

A laboratory diagnosis of pseudomonosis is considered established when isolating a culture with properties characteristic of disease pathogens and pathogenic for experimental fish.

3. Laboratory diagnosis of branchiomycosis

Branchiomycosis - An acute infectious disease of carp, carp, crucian carp, tench and other fish, the causative agent of which is a fungus that parasitizes in the blood vessels of the gill apparatus. As a result of blockage of the blood vessels by the fungus, necrotic decomposition of the gills occurs, causing massive death of fish, which is the most characteristic sign of the disease. It is found in fisheries in Western Europe. Branchiomycosis is recorded in several regions of Russia.

Branchiomyces sanguinis - a blood parasite. Under the microscope, necrotic, putrid decay sections of gills were examined.

sick fish. Gill petals are placed on a glass slide in a drop of water, torn with a dissecting needle and viewed at a small magnification of the microscope. In pathological material, fungal hyphae and spores are detected.

Histological examination of the gills on sections in the capillaries and respiratory folds shows fungal hyphae and spores, which are stained with hematoxylin in dark purple and eosin in red.

To obtain a culture, pathological material is taken only from corpses whose gills were decomposed. It is rather difficult to isolate the mushroom from the fresh undecomposed gill tissue of living fish. A piece of necrotic gill tissue is thoroughly ground in a mortar with water to free fungal hyphae. The ground mass is treated in a centrifuge with distilled water. The supernatant is drained, distilled water is added again and placed in a centrifuge 3-4 times until a clear liquid is obtained. The sediment is examined under a microscope and free-floating hyphae are separated

mushroom. The washed hyphae are placed in a 2% formalin solution for 2 minutes, and then washed again with sterile water and plated on Saburo agar, semi-liquid agar, 3% glucose agar, meat and peptone broth, blood broth. Cultivate at a temperature of 20-22 ° C. The causative agent grows well on the BCH. The fungal mycelium consists of highly branched hyphae (8-30 μm wide), devoid of partitions. Spores with a diameter of 5--9 μm are formed inside the hyphae. A pure mushroom culture in blood broth grows as well as in live gill tissue of fish. The development cycle of the fungus has not been completely studied.

4. Therapeutic and prophylactic preparations for spring viremia of carps (VVK)

Recently, a method of immunotherapy has been proposed. Treatment is with interleukin-2, the trade name is Roncoleukin. IL-2 affects the growth, differentiation and activation of agranular leukocytes. The principle of treatment is to activate the fish’s own immunity, to make the body cope with the disease on its own.

The medicine should be added either to the quarantine depositor or to the feed, if it is not possible to quarantine the fish, for example, pond carp or, in order to prevent this, give such food to the fish in the general aquarium. In an aquarium, the developers of the drug recommend adding Roncoleukin in a dose of 0.05 - 0.1 mg per 10 liters of water. Please note that the drug has various types of packaging. 10 ml vials containing 2 mg, 5 mg or 10 mg of IL-2, and in ampoules of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.5 mg of interleukin-2. Therapeutic baths with the drug should last 30-60 minutes. For carp in the pond, it is recommended to administer the drug orally with food. The feed is sprayed with a solution with the calculation of 0.0025 g / kg of fish mass. Feed three times with an interval of 48 hours. The drug does not inhibit biofiltration.

As a prophylaxis of IHC, a single feeding with therapeutic feed prepared according to the above method is recommended.

5. Therapeutic and prophylactic preparations for the apronomy of cyprinids

Apply baths with chloramphenicol (300 mg / l with an exposure of 12 hours or more), synthomycin (600-1000 mg / l with the same exposure) and methylene blue (50, 75,100,200 mg / l with an exposure of 12-16, respectively. 7-10, 4-6 and 2-4 hours.). In growing ponds, carp underyearlings are given methylene blue 1-2 mg each fish per day with food for 8-10 days. or synthomycin in a dose of 1-2 mg. Two-year-olds in feeding ponds are fed the same drugs in a dose: methylene blue 3-5 mg, synthomycin 2-3 mg each fish per day. Manufacturers and fish of the repair group are treated individually, levomycetin is administered intraperitoneally at 20-30 mg / kg twice, biomycin is given to carps through the mouth at 50 mg / kg for 2-4 days. Between intervals, methylene blue at 3000 mg per 1 kg of feed or synthomycin at the rate of 50 mg per 1 kg of fish weight is added to the feed. For all age groups of carp, furazolidone is added to the feed at the rate of 6 g per 10 kg of feed for 10 days. with a two-day break between five-day days. For preventive purposes, furazolidone is also used in ten-day courses with a two-day break per 10 kg of feed: for producers and carps from the repair group - 0.4 g each, two-year-olds - 0.3 g each, year-olds weighing up to 50 g - 0 each , 4 g, year-olds - 0.3 g each. Preventive feeding in feeding and summer uterine ponds begins in the spring when the water temperature rises to 14 ° C. Re-feeding is prescribed in the summer - during a possible outbreak of the disease. For under-year-old carp in proliferation ponds, preventive feeding is prescribed at the first feeding with compound feeds. From the second half of July to October, feeding with medicinal products is repeated every 2-3 weeks. Veterinary and fish-raising and meliorative measures are also carried out in a timely manner. Particular attention is paid to preventive disinfection and disinfestation of water bodies, medical monitoring of farmed fish and quarantine of producers and repair fish entering the farm; in some farms, periodic flying of ponds where infected fish were grown is used to prevent aeromonosis. epizootological viremia aeromonosis branchiomycosis

To increase nonspecific water resistance, the drug “DON” is introduced or a fish is fed with subaline (manufactured by Dneprofarm, Ukraine), or with crotonolactone. In the spring, when scoring repair individuals and producers, they are injected intraperitoneally with dibiomycin (with ecmoline or liquid paraffin). Good results were obtained in Russia during the production test.

VYUS-2 biochemical vaccine.

6. Therapeutic and prophylactic preparations for branchiomycosis (gill rot)

The treatment has not been developed.

When branchiomycosis occurs, the entire complex of antiepizootic measures is carried out. First of all, they improve the zoohygienic conditions of keeping fish: increase the flow rate of water in ponds, enrich it with oxygen in watering channels and in aerator ponds, and organize the systematic catch of sick fish and especially corpses of fish that died from branchiomycosis.

Sick fish, which has not lost its marketable appearance, is sold to people, and severely depleted and fresh corpses are used after heat treatment to feed livestock and poultry.

In order not to spread the disease to other fish farms and other ponds, the same fish farm does not carry out any movements of fish from the pond to the pond or other water bodies. All fish breeding equipment and fishing gear that were in use when working with sick fish are disinfected before use on other ponds and ponds: they are treated with a 2% formalin solution for 1 hour. or boil in tanks for 30 minutes.

Wood and metal tools burn on a flame. During an outbreak of branchiomycosis, all intensification

events in which there are fears of increasing the oxidizability of water and worsening its hydrochemical composition: they stop feeding fish and introducing organic fertilizers. At this time, carry out activities aimed at stabilizing the environment and inhibiting the development of the pathogen in it. To do this, lime is added to the ponds in the form of milk of lime, while achieving an increase in alkalinity (pH should be at least 8-8.5), which has a detrimental effect on the pathogen in the external environment. The timing of lime and its quantity is determined depending on the pH in the water of the dysfunctional pond.

List of references

1. Golovin N. A., Strelkov Yu. A., Voronin V. N., Golovin P. P., Evdokimova E. B., Yukhimenko L. N. Ichthyopathology. 2003

2. 2. INSTRUCTION on measures for the prevention and control of spring carp viremia (VVK).

3. Korotova D.M. Diseases of fish: a short course of lectures for fourth-year students of a training direction 03/35/08 Aquatic bioresources and aquaculture // Saratov State Agrarian University. - Saratov, 2015 .-- 46 p.

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Medicines used in endodontics. Liquids for medical treatment, washing of root canals. Preparations for antiseptic dressings. Chlorine-containing preparations, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic enzymes, iodine preparations.

presentation 302,4 K, added 12/31/2013

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Treatment and prevention

When confirming the diagnosis of carp aramonosis, quarantine restrictions are imposed on the economy. Within the framework of restrictions, the use of fish for reproduction and its movement beyond the boundaries of a dysfunctional economy is prohibited. The corpses of dead fish are disposed of by burning or digging to a depth of not less than one and a half meters, previously disinfected with a solution of bleach. Bury dead fish as far as possible from the shores of water bodies.

Caught fish with obvious signs of illness must be disposed of by processing into industrial feed (fishmeal, minced meat, after boiling) and sent to animal feed.

Fish from a dysfunctional reservoir that has not lost its presentation may be used for food purposes. Aeromonosis does not pose a danger to warm-blooded animals, especially in connection with a high body temperature, which does not provide an opportunity for the development of the causative agent of the disease.

For therapeutic purposes, antibacterial drugs are used, such as:

  • antibiotics
  • nitrofurans:
  • sulfonamides,
  • quinolones and others.

At the same time, flying is the only reliable method for improving the health of the pond from cyprinidae cyprinidae. When flying, all the water from the reservoir is released, the fish is sorted according to the clinical manifestations of the disease and sent, respectively, for commodity processing or for disposal.

A complex of veterinary and sanitary measures is carried out in a drained pond, including bottom cleaning, surface treatment with disinfectants (usually quicklime), plowing and sowing of plants. The next year, the pond is filled with water and stocked.

The main prevention of cyprinid aeromonosis is the quarantine of imported livestock, periodic disinfection of the reservoir, as well as the timely implementation of reclamation measures that ensure the flow of fresh water. Periodic flying and a complete change in the number of farmed fish are highly recommended.

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