Starting to grow garden roses, you need to know the properties of wild roses, which are universally called rose hips. We bring to your attention a fragment of the book by Lyubov Bumbeeva "Roses".
Garden roses are a product of centuries of culture. They were created by man as a result of a long and complex process of improving some types of wild roses. This process continues today, as ever new species are gradually being drawn into the culture, new garden groups appear, and the assortment of garden roses is growing. Starting to grow garden roses, you need to know the properties of wild roses, which are universally called rose hips. Wild roses are widespread in cold and temperate zones. Roses belong to the botanical genus Rosa, numbering more than 300 species, and are part of the Rosaceae family. Typical morphological characters of the genus Rosa are:
- the shape, size of the bush, its characteristic features,
- length direction and color of shoots,
- the shape, size, location and color of the spikes,
- leaf shape, size, color and texture,
- the shape, size and color of the bud,
- the shape, size, color and terry of the flower,
- its shape in the open state,
- location, shape of the petals and sepals,
- the location and number of flowers on flower stalks,
- characteristic signs of smell
- time and features of flowering,
- shape, size and color and fruit.
In natural habitats, roses are deciduous or evergreen shrubs and bushes with a height of 15 cm to 3 m and above, some species with long (up to 7-9 m), thin, creeping along the ground or clinging to the support shoots. All roses in the form of a bush are divided into bushy and climbing. Typical bush form are the well-known species roses: R. canina, R. cinnamomea, R. centifolia, R. rugosa, form bushes of two or more meters in height. Small bushes include miniature roses. Some species of rose hips do not develop erect, but very long shoots creeping on the ground. It looks like an evergreen rose (R. sempervirens), a plowed rose (R. arvensis). The bushes of these roses are in the form of large flat "rosettes", very decorative during their mass flowering. A number of species have the ability to cling to their long shoots, spikes on the trunks and branches of neighboring trees and climb to a considerable height. The density of the bush is determined by the presence of lateral shoots. Types of branching bushes distinguish:
- dense branching of all shoots directed in different directions, short, strong shoots (park roses),
- branches on skeletal shoots short and thin (tea-hybrid, floribunda)
- secondary shoots are short (but longer than that of park shoots), strong (remontant roses, scrubs).
The color of the shoots of roses is different. On young shoots, the bark is green, reddish or purple, especially on the sunny side. By autumn, the color fades. (Fig. Bushes).
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Shoots are usually covered with spikes of various shapes and sizes. Spikes are a special formation of the integumentary tissue of rose shoots and serve as an excellent natural protection of plants. In park, in addition to spikes, often there are formations in the form of spines, bristles or hairy formations. Some species and varieties of R. canina ‘Inermis’, R. banksiae, Bengal roses are almost devoid of thorns. Spikes vary in size, shape, color.
In the form of spikes are:
- straight lines (R. rugosa, R. stellata, R. foetida)
- arcuate (in Bengal roses)
- hook-curved, sometimes thickened at the base (R. multiflora, R. muscosa)
- triangular (R. zweginzowii)
- styloid (R. foetida, R.villosa)
- pterygoid (R. sericea pteracantha)
- bristle-shaped (R. rugosa, R. gallica)
Sometimes on the same shoot the thorns are different in shape. In garden roses, thorns are often hook-curved. The color of the spikes varies, and therefore cannot be considered as a typical symptom. Nevertheless, in R. rugosa, R. foetida it is grayish, in R. rubiginosa, R. pimpinellifolia it is brown-rusty, in R. banksiae it is greenish-bronze, in many varieties of tea roses it is purple, in tea-hybrid roses, floribunda - mostly green in various shades. In some species of rose hips, the thorns are very decorative and visible from afar. The most unusual spikes of the pteracantha rose (R. omeiensis pteracantha) are wide and pterygoid at the base, transparent red.
Leaves are alternate, pinnate (complex). Almost all wild roses have a smaller leaf blade than garden roses. The leaf consists of 3-5, 5-7, 9-11, 13 or 15 leaflets attached to a common petiole. At the base of the petiole there is an adder attached to it. The number, size and shape of leaflets and stipules are a characteristic feature of certain types of roses. Small leaves in R. pimpinellifolia, R. lawranceana, large in R. macrophylla, the average size of leaves dominates in garden roses. The shape of the leaves is determined mainly by the ratio of length and width. Variety is observed within the oval type. Leaflets are pubescent (old varieties) and bare on both sides (most modern). Rust leaves (R. rubiginosa) have special glands that secrete an essential oil that has a pleasant aroma reminiscent of the smell of fresh apples.
The color of the leaves varies within the main green color, but it is specific for roses from various groups. By color, the leaves are: light green, green, dark green. Young leaves of many varieties of roses - bronze or purple. According to the texture, the leaves are distinguished: matte, semi-matte, shiny, semi-shiny, leathery. In many modern varieties, the leaves are brilliant, in wild-growing ones, they are not glossy (with the exception of R. canina, R. bracteata, R. wichurana). Glitter gives leaves of roses a decorative effect and for some groups is a morphological feature. Roses with shiny leaves are less affected by fungal diseases. In most wild species of roses, after the completion of the development cycle, the leaves fall off. In modern varieties, with the onset of cold weather, vegetation is suspended, and the leaves are kept on a bush.
The flowers of roses are single-flowered - single, small-flowered - several together (2-3 flowers) or multi-flowered (from 5 or more) - in the form of dense umbrella-shaped panicle inflorescences, consisting of a mass of flowers. By the arrangement of inflorescence flowers there are corymbose-umbellate, pyramidal-umbellate, paniculate.
The flowers are bisexual. Inside the flowers, numerous pistils and stamens are clearly visible, which are located at the bottom of the thickened receptacle. Growing, the receptacle becomes fleshy and, together with the stamens and pestles, forms a false fruit. Real fruits are single-seed nuts enclosed in a fleshy, sprawling receptacle. False fruits are called fruits in practice, and real fruits are called seeds.
The largest flowers are: large (10-16 cm in diameter), medium (6-9 cm) and small (less than 6 cm).
According to the terry, the flowers depending on the number of petals can be: simple (number of petals - 5), semi-double (from 10 to 20), arranged in 2-4 rows of 5 pieces each, double (from 20 to 50) - in 5- 8 rows and dense (number of petals from 50 or more) - 8 or more rows of petals, and the middle of the flower is filled with a compact mass of small petals. In some varieties, flowers bloom quickly, in others gradually (terry and densely terry varieties).
Regardless of the degree of terry, the petals are narrow, wide-hearted, equal in length to the maximum width, wide and round. The consistency of the petals distinguish between dense, thick and soft thin.
A typical wild rose flower consists of 5 leafy sepals and 5 petals, with the exception of R. sericea - 4. Sometimes, in some species, flowers with a greater number of petals are found. Part of the stamens and pistils turns into additional petals. Thus, semi-double and double flowers appear. In some cases, the number of new petals grows to a very large number, so that in the flower there are almost no normally developed stamens and pistils. For example, a centifolic rose, or a centipede (R. centifolia), has up to 100 or more petals; terry forms of a wrinkled rose (R. rugosa) —up to 180 petals. In terry varieties, the ability of flowers to pollination and abundant fruiting is reduced.
The shape of the flower depends on the density, shape and size of the petals. Terry roses have outer petals always larger than internal. Flowers in shape can be:
flat - when opened, the flower is flat or with a slightly recessed surface,
cupped - the flower has a depression in the center, the outer petals are higher than the inner, with the edges bent outward,
goblet with a high center - the flowers are rounded, with a spiral arrangement of petals, ensuring their gradual opening, the outer petals are large, concave,
spherical - the flowers are more or less rounded, the outer petals are large, concave,
square - the location of the petals sectors from the center (4 or 5 sectors) with densely overlapping petals,
tiled - the petals with the edges bent outward resemble a laid tile, the flowers are slightly convex,
bent - the bud does not open for a long time, when blooming, the petals spiral outwardly.
These are the main forms of the flower, but some forms of modern roses require additions to these descriptions.
The color of flowers is the most diverse in modern roses. The color scale is achieved as a result of numerous crosses. In wild roses, red (light tones) and pink colors predominate, white and yellow are very rare, and lilac is absent.
The aroma of flowers is diverse: strong, medium, weak. In most wild species, the flowers have a pleasant aroma: honey (R.rugosa), apple (R. rubiginosa), fruity (R. centifolia, R. gallica, R. muscosa), less often unpleasant (R. foetida). Chinese roses have a tea flavor. Most modern varieties have more or less fragrant flowers.
Bloom. By the nature of the flowering roses are divided into single-blooming and re-blooming. Most wild rose species bloom on last year's shoot wood. Flower buds are laid in the year preceding flowering. The wild roses are the first to bloom (in May), but bloom once and for a relatively short time (15-25 days). Ancient garden roses begin to bloom later than the species (in May - June), also bloom once, and only a few have repeated bloom, weaker than the first. Modern selection roses (tea-hybrid, floribunda roses, scrubs, large-flowered, miniature, polyanthus) bloom at the end of June, bloom twice and to the very frosts.
Fruit. Pollination in roses mainly occurs with the help of insects or wind. Due to the conversion of stamens and pistils into additional petals, the ability of flowers to pollination and abundant fruiting is reduced. Sometimes the flowers remain infertile, such as the centifolia rose (R. centifolia).
Many wild-growing species of roses are appreciated in decorative gardening precisely because of the abundance and beauty of the fruit. In size, the fruits are divided into large, medium, small, and in shape into round (R. pomifera), flat (R. rugosa rubra), pear-shaped (R. holodonta), ovoid (R. eglanteria), etc. The following colors are distinguished: red (R. rugosa alba), orange (R. bracteata), black (R. pteragonis).
The root system in most roses lies superficially, spreading almost horizontally from the root neck. This is how the root system develops for cinnamon rose (R. cinnamomea), rust rust (R. rubiginosa), etc. The rose canina (R. canina), which is one of the best rootstocks for the middle zone, has a very powerful root system that goes deep into 2 m and more. The most frost-resistant species is the needle-shaped rose (R. acicularis).
In addition to the complex of morphological characters, their biological features are essential: the stability of the color of the flower, heat resistance, resistance to diseases, winter hardiness, copious flowering, compatibility with stock, etc.
Sometimes a very interesting phenomenon is observed in rose flowers - proliferation. It consists in the fact that a vegetative shoot grows above a flower, ending with a new, somewhat smaller flower. A flower forms like a second tier.
Varieties of garden roses during seed propagation do not transmit all their qualities by inheritance. In order to preserve them, the variety is propagated only vegetatively: by budding or by grafting.
The aroma of flowers of most types of roses is due to content in their petals of essential rose oil. Rose oil is one of the most expensive in the world. The famous Kazanlak rose (Bulgaria) is especially famous for its aroma and high oil content in petals. It serves as a raw material for the industrial production of rose oil. To obtain 500 g of pure oil, it is necessary to process 500 kg of petals.
The aroma of roses is very diverse and, as a rule, pleasant: it is the aroma of honey, tea, violets, fruits. There are up to 25 types of smell characteristic of roses. 75% of all roses have a fragrance. But there are roses with an unpleasant, intoxicating smell, for example, Persian fetid rose (R. foetida persiana).
All roses are shrubs. A standard rose is a “tree-rose” that has not been created by nature; it can be made only by a gardener.
The fruits of wild roses contain from 3 to 17.5% of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), as well as vitamins B2, K, provitamin A. The fruits of cinnamon rose (R. cinnamomea) are especially appreciated. Often the fruits have a sweet flesh and are therefore used to make jams, compotes, etc.
Lyubov Ivanovna Bumbeeva accompanies the trips of the Green Arrow, the focus of which is primarily roses.
You will find a list of such trips. here
You can see the full list of Green Arrow travels here
We select and save seedlings
To initially ensure success in growing roses, you need to purchase high-quality planting material. It is better to choose plants whose root system will be closed. When planting such a seedling, the earth around the root must be preserved.
Rose seedlings are best chosen with a closed root system: they take root more easily at the planting site and are less sick
Often in modern supermarkets you can see imported roses with a closed root system, which are sold in advance. Several seedlings can be stored in the refrigerator on the lower shelf at a temperature of 0 to + 5 ° C. During storage, you will have to regularly monitor the condition of the substrate around the rhizome. It does not have to dry completely, but too much hydration is also harmful to him.
Advice! A solution of root or heteroauxin promotes root growth; therefore, seedlings can be watered several times.
When should I plant roses?
Spring planting of roses in the middle lane is recommended to be done when the soil warms up to + 10 ° C. Typically, these conditions correspond to the period from late April to early May. Spring is chosen for the planting of standard roses.
Most roses are recommended autumn planting. The preferred period of work begins in mid-September and ends in mid-October. Earlier planting time is undesirable due to the fact that the rose can give warm fresh shoots that do not have time to get stronger and freeze in winter. Late planting is also dangerous, because the plant must take root before frost.
Most roses are planted in the fall. This is also convenient because when buying planting material on the market, you can see the flower itself
Determine the place to land
The place for planting roses should be sunny. In the shade, roses can get bored, they stop flowering, dark spots appear on the leaves of plants, blind shoots form. The plant can be affected by powdery mildew. Choose a site that is ventilated, but has protection from strong northerly winds.
Roses adorn the garden, regardless of their location, but the plants themselves need conditions for successful growth and flowering
Roses have no particular soil preferences. They are not as capricious as it might seem. Any soil except heavy clay and light sandy loam is suitable for them. The landing site should not be located where groundwater is close to the surface of the earth.
The process of planting roses
Planting pits need to be dug so deep and wide that the roots of the plant are spacious. If the soil is fertile, then half a meter of depth and the same width will be sufficient. For clay soil with the same width of the pit in depth, you need to dig 60-70 cm.
It is necessary to prepare a nutrient mixture for filling in the pit. It consists of humus or compost, rotted manure and soil. Fertilizers should not be in contact with the roots of the plant, so we sprinkle them with a layer of soil.
The soil or substrate with which the roots of the plant are closed must be preserved: the rose quickly adapts to new conditions of life
Before planting a seedling, pour water into the pit so that it is absorbed. If the root system of the rose is closed, it is not necessary to free the root from the ground. If the root is free, it must be cut to a third of the length and soaked in plain water or a root growth stimulator for two hours.
Shoots should also be pruned:
- in polyanthus and hybrid tea roses so that there are 2-3 buds on each shoot,
- in floribunda roses, leave 3-4 buds,
- at park roses, shoots are shortened by 10-15 cm,
- in a groundcover rose, only root sections are trimmed (renew, not shorten).
The seedling should be sprinkled with soil so that the grafting site is about 5 cm underground. Remove wax from the burial place, if any. The earth should be tamped and watered again. In this way, air that could remain around the roots is removed, and the closest contact of the plant and soil is achieved. The sapling can be spudded by about 10-15 cm. The formed hill needs to be removed in two weeks - the time for which the sapling should take root.
Reproduction of the Queen of the Garden
There are not so many ways to propagate roses. But the desire to have as many of these undeniably beautiful and diverse plants on the site as possible is so great that gardeners seek to master them all to the maximum extent. Here is a list of ways to propagate the rose:
- Budding. On the bark of the trunk of the plant, close to the ground level, a T-shaped incision is made, into which a cultivated kidney is inserted, and then fixed with a film. The scion can use the developed root system of the stock. Such an operation is simple, but requires some experience.
- Seeds This method is used extremely rarely due to the fact that the result has to wait a long time, and there is no certainty that it will turn out to be positive. Yes, and the germination of rose seeds leaves much to be desired.
- Layering. Shrub and climbing roses propagate in this way because they have long and strong stems. The shoot of the plant in the lower part is incised for 8 cm, a sliver or a match is inserted into the incision. The cut part of the shoot is placed in the ground and fixed, and its free tip is tied to a peg. The rooted shoot is cut off from the parent bush.
- Cuttings. The method is good because roses rooted in this way will not give wild shoots. A stalk is part of a strong shoot. It is cut off next to the leaf bud, and germinated using root stimulants. After the root appears, the rose can be planted in the ground.
It is good to use the lay method only for propagating plants with long stems, which are used to create a new rose bush
Manure is a natural fertilizer and, of course, preference should be given to it. Horse manure is considered the best, having at least six months ago. Chicken and pork manure, especially when fresh, can seriously harm the plant: it is sour and young shoots can simply burn. Fresh manure also has a bad effect on soil, because it blocks nitrogen.
Manure is a natural fertilizer, therefore, the most acceptable. When choosing fertilizing, preference should be given to rotted horse manure or mullein
During the formation of buds, you need to feed the plant with a solution of calcium nitrate at the rate of 1 tbsp. for 10 liters of water. At the time of active growth and development of the plant, it should be watered every 10-15 days with herbal infusion, a solution of mineral fertilizers, chicken droppings or infused mullein. To make fertilizing better perceived by the plant, it is better to make the same mineral fertilizers in dissolved form and after the next watering. When the first half of summer is already behind, that is, in the second part of July, the dressing of the rose stops. The plant begins to prepare for winter.
Plants are also able to survive stress. It is in this state that they are in a period of intense heat, cold or lingering rains. To make roses easier to overcome difficult times in your life, you need to spray them with zircon, epin, eco-strength or sodium humate. Overfed roses give abundant greens, but bloom very sparingly.
Roses need to be watered no more than once a week. If the summer is hot, then the frequency of watering can be doubled. Irrigation rate - a bucket of warm water for each bush. Pour water under the root, trying not to fall on the foliage. Water should penetrate the soil to a depth of at least 20-30 cm. If the watering of roses is not deep, surface roots can form that are easily damaged.
The rose in the dew is a magnificent sight, but nature ordered that the dew disappear with the first rays of the sun, otherwise its drops, like magnifying glasses, would enhance the energy of the sun and burn the petals: you need to water the roses under the root
If there is no one to water roses for a long time (more than a week), the soil at the base of the plant should be covered with humus, mowed grass or tree bark. This measure not only retains moisture at the roots, but also prevents the growth of weeds.
With a lack of moisture, the flowers of the plant can become small, but roses should not be poured: this can lead to a reduction in the supply of oxygen to the roots. As a result, the leaves turn yellow in the plant. To prevent this from happening, do not forget to loosen the soil after watering.
Prevention, control of disease and parasites
Of course, proper feeding and watering is important, but the process of caring for a garden rose is not limited to this. One of the most unpleasant diseases for a garden rose is powdery mildew. Preventive measures will help take care of the plant's health in advance. The rose must be sprayed directly on the leaves with a solution of ordinary drinking soda at the rate of 40 g of soda per liter of water. This should be done from spring 2-3 times in a week, as well as at the beginning of summer.
Plants, like all life on earth, can get sick. These are not random spots or traces of fertilizer. This is powdery mildew, which is easier to prevent than to treat.
Aphids are a big nuisance for roses. But you can overcome it. To do this, boil a bucket of water, put in it a piece of grated laundry soap and a couple of branches of wormwood, then cook for 10-15 minutes. With a cooled and filtered solution, roses are sprayed. After a week, the procedure should be repeated. If the aphid stubbornly does not want to leave the plant, you will have to use a systemic poison, for example, Aktara.
Aphids will not appear on roses at all if you plant lavender or nasturtium under them. And calendula and marigolds will help get rid of beetles. By the way, health roses, like people, will add onions and garlic. In their environment, plants become more fragrant and less sick.
Stains on the leaves, cracks in the stems and the cessation of the development of buds indicate a disease. Affected branches should be removed. Prepare the infusion of horsetail, wormwood and nettles, which spray the rose.
A few words about pruning roses
The shoots of plants growing inward should be pruned. This stimulates the emergence of young shoots and active flowering. Fading flowers need to be removed, then the saved energy of the plant will be directed to a new wave of flowering, which will be more plentiful.
Just look what a beauty! But all this splendor can be grown with your own hands. If someone succeeded, you will definitely succeed
There are a lot of pruning rules, and this topic is undoubtedly worth a separate article.
Varieties of climbing roses
When choosing a variety that blooms all season, you need to stay on climbing roses. They bloom once, but for a very long time, sometimes even continuously. They are divided into several varieties:
The best popular varieties of climbing roses:
In regions with severe winters and temperature extremes, winter-hardy varieties are usually chosen for planting:
- Super Dorothy
- Rosarium Uetersen,
- New Dawn
- Red Eden
- William Shakespeare 2000,
- Golden Celebration.
Climbing roses, blooming all summer, effectively decorate arbors, fences, arches, walls of buildings and other vertical surfaces. Perennial creepers do not always please with continuous flowering. The longest flowering period in varieties:
The wicker luxurious flowers not only delight with an amazing appearance, but also exude a persistent aroma. They require tying to trellises or vertical supports.
We have prepared a video on the varieties of climbing roses:
Varieties of white roses
Dazzling whiteness is not uncommon in flower crops. But finding pure white, without shades, the color among the rose bushes is not so simple. Most popular:
The whitest roses are Luis Lens breeding. The Pascali variety is deservedly considered the leader among beautiful tea-hybrid roses.
Popular demanded hybrids of floribunda roses differ from their relatives in their characteristic features:
- disease resistance
- lush flowering
- frost resistance.
Inflorescences collected from several flowers have an amazing aroma. There are miniature plants, and large bushes with large flowers. Among the common varieties:
In the catalogs - inflorescences of different sizes, colors and shapes. Shrubs adapt well, do not require frequent rejuvenation and special care.
Roses of David Austin
Among shrub roses, varieties of English selection by David Austin are particularly distinguished. Novelty among flower crops has not yet been added to more than one of the groups. These peony hybrids are easily recognized among professionals by their unusual aroma and large cup-shaped flowers. Among the roses of David Austin varieties:
These amazingly beautiful roses have become the owners of numerous world exhibitions, successfully acclimatized in different latitudes of the globe.
Hybrid Tea Roses
Allocated to a separate class, these cultures were only in the twentieth century. A distinctive feature of this unique hybrid is continuous flowering.
The best varieties of tea hybrid roses:
They are highly decorative and unpretentious.
Varieties of pink roses
Shades of pink are considered the most numerous among roses of all varieties. They are found among all groups and species. The most common varieties of roses are pink flowers:
Reference! The scientifically proven fact that pink color soothes and improves mood.
Pink shades always look gentle and romantic, organically fit into any interior.
Bushes of pink crops have different shapes, sizes, colors and agricultural features. Distinctive features:
- frost resistance
They easily take root, breed, do not require special care. The most common varieties of spray roses:
- Cardinal de Richelieu,
Small (border) roses are very popular. They take up little space, not inferior in decoration to ordinary varieties. They grow well in the street and at home. Among the varieties of miniature spray roses:
In dwarf roses, a pion-shaped inflorescence is often found. Among these unique and delicate varieties:
- Rosa Sweet Dream English,
- Heidi Klum,
Despite their small size, such roses have a long flowering period and are popular due to their wide color gamut and unpretentiousness.
Varieties of red roses
The red colors of royal flowers are an unchanging classic that provides relevance and popularity to roses of all groups and species. Multiple benefits are attributed to red:
- memory improvement
- stabilization of the cardiovascular system,
- increase in tone and immunity,
- improving skin color and vision.
Regardless of the height, shape of the flower and the shape of the bush, varieties of red roses always remain the most common:
Red noble roses will successfully fit into any design, suitable for creating a bouquet or floral arrangement for any event.
Varieties of yellow roses
Yellow shades of roses can be very diverse, from delicate lemon to fiery yellow. They are good for creating rose gardens, complementing flower arrangements.
The most popular yellow roses:
In ancient mythology, it is the yellow rose that is the symbol of wealth. Today, bouquets of yellow roses symbolize fun, happiness, joy and prosperity. No wonder that yellow is associated with gold.
Varieties of black roses
Exotic always attracts and bewitches. Black color of roses is a rare phenomenon, such unique flowers are in great demand. Does not exist in nature pure black in petals. Therefore, black is considered to be all the most dark shades.
The most common varieties:
Black roses look elegant, especially. Bouquets of such flowers are presented on special occasions.
The best varieties of blue roses
Blue usually refers to roses of purple and lilac color, which have a blue tint at one stage or another of growth.
Varieties of blue roses:
It is usually characteristic for blue roses to bloom for a rather long period. They are chosen, due to the exotic color and unpretentiousness.
Lilac varieties of roses are bred by selection. The unusual color attracts florists and designers with its uniqueness and variety of shades.
Popular lilac roses:
It is generally accepted that the lilac color of the flowers is intended by a real lady. Therefore, bouquets from such amazing plants can be presented to women without age restrictions.
Varieties of orange roses
In psychology, the orange color is associated with positive emotions, good mood, happiness and joy. Positive orange flowers always delight guests and hosts, and bouquets of them are a win-win option for any person, without exception.
Popular varieties of orange:
A bright sunny shade of orange rose petals always attracts attention. They look especially aesthetically during periods when there is not enough sunlight. Bright and cheerful colors will decorate any site, organically fit into design and style.
A distinctive feature of English roses - dense buds and a delicious aroma. They are resistant to diseases and climatic anomalies, have a strong frame and a long flowering period. The variety of forms of buds and bushes is striking.
The best varieties of English roses:
These amazing breeding varieties attract the attention of world-class designers. Refined and unusual flowers are used in floral arrangements to decorate royal events and celebrations of the highest level. A bouquet of English roses is an exquisite and unusual gift for any occasion.
The best varieties of park roses
Due to its impressive size and lush flowering, park roses are traditionally planted in open areas in private households and in public places. Amazing hedges, large-scale flower arrangements are created from park roses.
The most popular varieties:
- John Davis
- David Thompson
- Queen of the North
- Pierre de Saint Cosme,
- Jean de Luxembourg,
- Marie Curie
In landscape design, park roses are indispensable. They grow rapidly, filling their space with foliage and plentiful flowers. Usually not very whimsical, easy to breed.
Varieties of canadian roses
A characteristic and main distinguishing feature of seedlings of Canadian roses is high frost resistance. Bred in the harsh conditions of the Canadian winter, such plants began to be grown even in Alaska. Hardy garden crops at the same time, like all roses, have a pleasant aroma and attractive appearance.
The best varieties of "canadian":
Canadian rose varieties are hardy, grow and breed well in regions with severe climatic conditions.
Roses spray varieties
Miniature graceful varieties of spray varieties appeared in sight not so long ago. In fact, a spray rose is nothing more than a small bouquet. They captivate with abundant flowering, a variety of shapes and colors.
Among the varieties of spray roses:
Spray roses grow well in the open ground and at home. They are planted as border plants, garden paths are planted with roses of compact size to separate the plot.
Varieties of border roses
Border roses include low and medium-sized varieties that do not exceed a height of 60-70 cm. A distinctive feature of this group of roses is their compact size and original terry inflorescences of small sizes.
Popular varieties of border roses:
In room conditions, border roses bloom before their "counterparts" growing in the open ground.
Mini roses grown in flowerpots in apartments and private houses are very miniature in size and have continuous flowering. The maximum height of plants reaches 30-35 cm. The smallest barely grow to a mark of 20 cm.
Varieties of indoor roses:
They grow well in an apartment, like sunlight, but not direct sunlight. With proper care - they bloom for a long time.
Roses without thorns
The prevailing stereotype of “roses without thorns does not exist” has long been destroyed. There are many varieties of non-studded roses that will not harm either the skin or clothing.
Among the popular roses without thorns are such varieties:
Ashipless plants are becoming more popular. They can be approached without fear by both adults and children. No special protective clothing is required for care and trimming. Especially such varieties are in demand for the territorial decoration of children's institutions.
Regardless of the climate, I want to grow roses on a personal plot both in the south of the country and in regions with frosty and long winters.
The best varieties of roses for Moscow region:
- Rhapsody in blue
- Gloria dei
- Pierre de Ronsard,
- Snow Goose
- Louis Oder
- James Galaway
Varieties that are most acclimatized relative to the region are selected. Depending on the technical characteristics, each variety requires a specific approach and growing conditions.
Varieties of roses suitable for Siberia:
- William Shakespeare 2000,
- Queen Elizabeth
- New Dawn
In harsh Siberian conditions, only crops with strong immunity and high frost resistance fully grow and bloom.
Roses for the Leningrad region:
- White rose of York
- Black Baccarat
- Marie Curie
High air humidity and temperature changes negatively affect garden crops. Therefore, in such “zones of risky farming” seedlings are selected very carefully.
Roses are usually divided into 3 main groups:
- wild and their hybrids (park roses and climbing roses are often referred here),
- garden (flower beds and groundcover roses),
- modern varietal shrubs.
However, this is not the only classification and its boundaries are fuzzy.
Among the roses used in landscaping, there is a division into deciduous, climbing and shrub varieties. The most common are deciduous and shrubby. Shrubs are characterized by rapid growth and long flowering. Bushes can reach heights of up to 2 m.
Underground: root system features
The root system of the rose bush is pivotal, with vegetative propagation - fibrous.
The lobes are small subordinate roots at the ends of the lateral roots, with the help of which the plant receives water and all the necessary nutrients from the soil that enter the aerial part through the lateral and skeletal roots.
The skeletal root is the largest among the roots, usually with lignification of tissues. In the Rosaceae family, its diameter, as a rule, is 2-3 cm.
With the stem, the underground part of the plant is connected by the so-called root neck located above the root system. Depending on the depth of planting, the root neck can be 3-5 cm, 5-10 cm or 10-15 cm long. This is a very important element of the plant, since when planting roses, it is necessary to take into account the position of the root neck of the seedling.
The aerial part of roses consists of the main stems, shoots of different orders and flowers. The stem connects the root system with the leaves of the plant and is a conductor of nutrients. Also, roses have thorns that differ in size and other characteristics. Also, these plants and leaves and flowers are different, even the smell differs. The aboveground part can have various properties - have branched and short shoots, be dense and loose, strong and weak. These characteristics depend on the species and variety.
Varieties of Rose Thorns
A characteristic feature of a rose is the presence of thorns on the surface of its shoots. Spikes are the formations of the integumentary tissue of branches that perform a protective function. Their species vary depending on the type of flower and vary in shape, size and quantity.
- Frequent thorns of small sizes are usually found in dogrose, while in most roses, thorns are rare and large.
- As for the shape of the spikes, the following types are distinguished: straight spikes, sickle-shaped, bent down, flattened, etc.
- Some varieties have formations in the form of hairs or small “spines”.
There are also roses that do not have thorns at all. True, there are very few such varieties of not prickly roses. These species are well suited for planting along walkways or for use in gardens where small children often come.
Leaf types: leaf plate features and and shapes
With the help of so-called nodes, leaves are attached to the stems or side shoots. A standard rose leaf consists of 5-7 leaves that are attached to one petiole. Occasionally, their number can reach 15. Each type of rose has different leaves. They are separated by shape, size, texture and color.
- Almost all adult leaves of the rose are green: from soft light to dark shades. But some varieties of roses have purple or bronze leaves with a characteristic copper tint.
- The leaf plate can be smooth or with pronounced veins. Its size in wild species of roses is usually smaller than in garden ones.
- The edges of the leaves are divided into solid and serrated.
The surface of the leaves can reflect light to varying degrees. In some varieties, the leaves shine so much as if rubbed with oil. Other varieties are almost dull. In addition to these two extreme cases, there are intermediate options. So, there are glossy, matte, semi-matte, leathery and semi-glossy leaves. Matte leaves are mainly characteristic of wild varieties, and glossy - for garden varieties.
Sepals are the outer part of the flower that covers the rose petals before it blooms. They play a protective role until the flower has blossomed, protecting it from wind, rain and aggressive sunlight. After the sepals open to make room for the flower.
Depending on the type of rose, the number of sepals may be 4 or 5.
Rose petals are very soft and delicate to the touch. Since this is the main part of the flower, the petals receive the greatest amount of nutrients, thanks to which the rose acquires its own special color and aroma. This is necessary in order to attract insects and help in pollination. Petals are distinguished by quantity and form. It is from these characteristics that the appearance of the flower is more dependent.
The smaller the number of petals, the simpler the shape of the flower. Roses with a large number of petals are called terry. Such varieties are most valued.
- simple roses (up to 8 petals)
- half-terry (8-20 petals)
- moderately terry (21-29 petals)
- thick-terry (from 30 petals)
In shape, the petals can be bent outward, whole-edge (wavy or bent), serrated and triangular.
Types of roses on the structure of the bush
Shrub roses. Although technically all roses are shrubs, this class stands out separately. Shrub roses are a heterogeneous group of plants that do not fit into any of the other categories of roses. Shrubs, especially modern ones, are deservedly popular because they have a long flowering season, are resistant to diseases and pests, and are also universal in the landscape. In the classic garden, rose bushes are famous for their luxurious fragrant flowers and lush green foliage. They can be used as garden borders, coordinators and just decorations.
Most bush roses are easy to grow. They can live with minimal care - only regular watering and sometimes fertilizer are required. A rose bush can do perfectly without pruning. However, so that it does not become “dead” and blooms throughout the season, it is better to trim it all the same. A light haircut at the end of winter or early spring will keep it in a neat shape.
There are many varieties of pink shrubs. Their variety is very impressive. There can be many types of roses. They come in completely different colors, sizes and shapes. So, no matter how much rose bushes grow in the garden, there is always room for another variety. In addition, they look great both next to each other, and in combination with other plants.
Although rose bushes are diverse, some (due to selection) have similarities. Therefore, usually all shrubs are divided into two types of forms: spreading and compact (compressed). The shape of the bush is the most important indicator of the variety.
- Compact shrubs are distinguished by the presence of straight stiff shoots, tending upward. Usually garden roses have this shape. Such varieties look perfect as borders and low living partitions. Also recommended for growing in pots.
- As for the spreading roses, their stems are flexible and curved, and grow not only in height but also in width. Such bushes are more characteristic of wild varieties. They are more suitable for tall hedges.
Many species of wild pink shrubs tend to grow so much that they began to be considered pests. Nevertheless, if such a bush is properly grafted and well looked after, then it will return to its attractive form and will not be able to spread to the entire garden.
Climbing roses. Climbing roses can be studied all life, since there is a huge variety of their growth methods, sizes, needs, etc. The period of the greatest flowering of classic climbing roses is mid-June and early August. This is an amazing sight. They add “movement” to the garden design, texture and color, soften straight lines, emphasize bends and give a feeling of abundance. Can be used on walls, fences, chains and on tunnel arches. In addition, climbing roses are much less affected by pests and diseases than other species. Partly this may be due to the fact that they grow much higher than earth roses, and also receive more air and light.
There are a lot of species of climbing roses, but usually they are divided into two large groups: Climber and Rambler.
- Roses Rambler - the main ancestors of all climbing roses. They appeared as a result of crossing varieties of Vihura and floribunda.
- Vihura and floribunda are very large and strong rose bushes with flexible shoots that usually bloom only once at the beginning of the summer period. Roses Rambler “inherited” their stamina along with thin but strong stems. Their length usually reaches 3-4 meters. The flowers are small, have a wonderful aroma, but due to short flowering, the fragrance does not last long and almost disappears over time ...
- Roses Climber came from the crossing of Rambler roses and various tea-hybrid varieties. The main difference from the Rambler roses is that Climbers bloom not once, but throughout the summer and autumn. However, there are rare exceptions. Runs are straight and tough, they can do without support. The standard length is from 3 to 6 m. The flowers are large, collected in small inflorescences. This group of roses has great endurance and winter hardiness.
At the beginning of the 19th century, as a result of crossing different species, hybrids were bred, which served as the basis for this group of roses. Plants inherited frost resistance from their European ancestors. Hybrids can bloom several times during the summer, that is, be remontant.
The bush is tall from 1 to 2 meters. The leaves are large, dense. The flowers are large (8 - 10 cm in diameter), rounded cupped, pink or red, less often white and yellow, double with a strong aroma. The second flowering is much weaker than the first.
Variety - Alinka
A charming, large terry flower up to 10 cm in diameter.Rose petals with an amazing transition of color from golden yellow at the base to the scarlet, coral-red edge, reflecting silk velvet. The aroma is delicate and delicate. It blooms from summer to late autumn, without compromising its decorative effect.
Variety - Ingrid Bergman
Elegant classic rose, bright and unforgettable. The flowers are large, up to 10 cm in diameter, densely double with terracotta-red petals of velvet shades the color of ripe cherries. The aroma is delicate and unique.
Enthusiastic descriptions in catalogs and praise for the shape of a flower may give you the impression that a hybrid tea rose is an ideal rose. This is not entirely true. Some varieties form bushes with ugly hard branches, and their flowers quickly deteriorate in wet weather. They bloom less often and are inferior in brightness to Floribunda roses. They are demanding of good conditions for growth.
Be careful when choosing roses of this group. Not all varieties are suitable for decorating the garden - some are designed specifically for exhibitions, and only judges can appreciate their beauty.
Hybrid tea is rightly considered the queen of roses - but it is not without drawbacks.
Such a group of rose varieties is obtained by crossing Chinese and multifloral roses. It is distinguished by long flowering and an abundance of small flowers collected in large brushes of colorful flowers, most of them without aroma.
Rose bushes are not high up to 60 cm. Flowers are in diameter from 3 to 4 cm, often double: white, pink, red and salmon. Bloom profusely and continuously from mid-July to frost. Plants are winter-hardy, but require light protection for the winter. They grow well and bloom in the open ground on their roots. Look great in landscape design as borders.
Floribunda Roses - Beautiful Roses
Varieties of this group were obtained as a result of crossing polyanthus varieties with tea hybrid, Pernetian and other varieties. After the rapid spread of Floribunda roses, polyanthus roses somewhat spent their purpose.
By the nature of the inflorescences, they are similar to polyanthus, and by the size of the flower and often resemble tea hybrid in shape. The flowers are simple, semi-double and double. They are less in inflorescences than polyanthus and they are not so densely arranged. Each brush simultaneously reveals several flowers. Floribunda have all the colors characteristic of tea-hybrid. Many varieties with a smell bloom profusely and for a long time.
The following varieties are suitable for the conditions of the Urals: Allen, Ankor, Gletcher, Display, Fire Flame, Charleston, Highlight. Like all garden varieties - they require shelter for the winter. Look great in landscaping and in various compositions. They take a leading place in the design. Good planting in flower beds.
Floribunda roses are, on average, more resilient, more reliable in a humid climate, and easier to care for than hybrid tea beauties.
Variety - Hot chocolate
The rose attracts attention with the unusual coffee and terracotta pink shades of the petals, which change color as they bloom from light salmon-orange to saturated brownish-cherry. Outlandish chocolate rose.
The flowers are large up to 9 cm in diameter, with a delicate delicate aroma, resistant to rain and are especially good in autumn cold weather. Bush height up to 1 meter.
Sort - Claire renaissance (Klair renaissance)
The flowers are gorgeous, large up to 12 cm in diameter, as they bloom form a huge bowl with many wavy silk milk-pink petals. The aroma is fresh, delicate. Bush height up to 150 cm.
The use of roses of this group creates the opportunity to give the landscape design of a suburban area a lot of colors. They can be grown in the form of a bush or as a standard. Among them there are varieties for planting in hedges, as well as dwarf varieties. Almost all dwarf varieties with a height of about 50 cm have recently been singled out as a special group of popular patio roses.
Varieties of roses - patio
A group of patio roses has been formed recently. There is no exact definition of a patio group. Now this group includes Floribunda rose varieties that do not exceed 45 - 55 cm in height and form dense bushes. These varieties have smaller flowers and leaves, but they bloom profusely throughout the season. The popularity of the patio group is growing.
Grade - Gentle touch
Flowers have the features of tea-hybrid roses, which eventually become flat. Inflorescences are strong and consist of many pink flowers that appear throughout the season. It occupies a high place among other varieties of patios.
The variegated variety of roses is indispensable from the last century to this day. Hybrids appeared as a result of crossing a multi-flowered rose with North American climbing and tea-hybrid. So there was a new group of tall shrubs with abundant flowering on last year's shoots. Flowers in large inflorescences, simple or double, varied in color.
Their main purpose is to cover part of the house, trellis, arbors, fences, pergolas, architectural structures,
The group of climbing roses is divided into five types:
- Multi-flowered braided
- Large-flowered climbing - with single or few flowers in inflorescence
- Climbing tassel-colored - with inflorescences, like Floribunda's roses
- Climbing species - wild roses and their close relatives
- Miniature braided
Unfortunately, the climbing forms of these roses usually do not preserve the ability of bush forms to re-bloom and give only one or two waves of flowering.
Variety - Golden fragrant (Golden parfum)
Flowers with honey aroma. Amber-yellow goblet buds open in bright, like saffron, densely doubled flowers with a diameter of 8 - 10 cm. It blooms profusely with a short break. The bush is very powerful, vigorous, up to 3 meters high.
Variety - Sympathie (Sympathie)
The flowers are exquisitely elegant, double, with a spectacular, rich red and raspberry color of velvet petals. The aroma is pleasant, quite strong. It blooms continuously all summer and autumn, while maintaining the excellent shape and beauty of the petals in any weather. Height 250 cm.
Ground cover roses
Before you buy such a rose, it is better to find out what size it reaches when it grows. The bush can reach a height of 20 cm to 2 meters and is divided into four subgroups:
- Small creeping roses 30 - 45 cm high and not more than 1.5 meters wide
- Large creeping roses with a height of more than 45 cm and a width of more than 1.5 meters
- Small drooping roses reaching 95 cm in height and about 1.5 meters wide
- Large drooping roses not less than 1 meter high, bush 1.5 meters wide or more
In the varieties of the first two subgroups, the stems grow horizontally and can sometimes take root in nodes. Varieties belonging to the last two subgroups form sprawling bushes with arched drooping branches.
Varieties of roses are unpretentious, bloom profusely, many all summer, resistant to disease, winter-hardy. Flexible shoots allow you to tilt them to the ground, which ensures a good wintering. Ground cover plants can be planted on flower beds and retaining walls, decorate slopes and mask ugly places. They are interesting in group landing.
Due to the high growth energy and strong branching density, the rose grows rapidly, forming a dense, well-leafy bush with a wide gobitus, where the diameter is significantly higher than the height. A delightful elegant living carpet blooms profusely until the autumn frosts.
Scrubs - shrub roses
Shrubs translated from English “shrub” is a shrub. Shrub bushes have hard branches. The flowers are very diverse in shape and color, with and without smell. Many varieties are distinguished by their power, reaching a height of 2 meters. There are undersized scrubs. Bushes are winter-hardy and require light shelter for the winter, very resistant to disease.
Modern scrub varieties have all the positive qualities. Scrubs can be used in single, group and mixed plantings.
A stamped rose is a pink tree, a creation created by man from plants. In such a plant, the trunk is a wild rose, on which some varietal rose is grafted. Stamps vary in vaccination height. Pit trees require shelter.
If desired, and so you can arrange a tree with two flowers.
Famous varieties: Pimprenelle (Pimprenelle), Burgundy Ice (Burgundy Ice), Rosarium Uetersen (Rosarium Uetersen), Super Dorothy (Super Dorothy).