Perennial plant with spherical tuber 1-1.7 cm in diameter. The stalk is single, direct, high. up to 15–20 cm, with fruits elongating up to 30 cm. The basal leaf is one, early fading, its plate 3-5 is finger-separate, lobes up to half truncated. The wrapper is located in the upper half of the stem and consists of 5-6 segments, whole or less deeply incised. The flower is usually single, 2-3 cm in diameter, with 5-7 white petal-shaped sepals. Short-stalked fruit, obliquely inclined, narrow-lanceolate, with a short straight or slightly bent nose 1-3.
Ecology and biology.
Alpine view. Mesopsychrophyte. It grows in subalpine cedar, spruce and cedar-larch woodlands, in subalpine and alpine meadows, in mixed shrub tundra. It blooms immediately after snowmelt in May and June. Decorative 3, 5.
Limiting factors. The relict nature of the species. Narrow environmental amplitude.
Security measures. Introduced in reports: Red Book of the Republic of Khakassia, “Rare and Endangered Plants of Siberia”. Introduced in the botanical garden of Irkutsk State University, in the Central Siberian Botanical Garden. It is under the protection of the Sayano-Shushensky Biosphere Reserve. A study of biology is necessary.
Sources of information. Red Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. 1. Flora. 1993, 2. The Red Book. 2002, 3. Rare and endangered plants. 1980, 4. Sonnikova, Kuvaev, 1991, 5. Krasnoborov, 1976, 6. Sobolevskaya, 1984. Compiled by I.E. Yamskikh. Figure: Red Book. 2002 (b).
Family Ranunculaceae (Ranunculaceae)
Forests, hillsides, meadows. Eurasia. Miniature perennials with spherical tubers and 1-3 palmately split or palmately dissected leaves and yellow or white single apical flowers. Blooming in early spring. The plant goes to rest in June.
Light, partial shade. Rich soil. Propagation by daughter nodules and seeds. Sowing in the winter or cold stratification for 3-4 months.
Cilician Spring (Eranthis cilicica / hyemalis ssp. Cilicica)
It grows in Greece and Asia Minor. The species was introduced to Europe in 1892. It reaches 10 cm in height, the flowers are larger than Eranthis hyemalis. Young leaves are reddish-violet, very finely and deeply dissected. The stem leaves under the flower are also dissected into narrow lobes. Blooms 14 days later than Eranthis hyemalis, flowering is less active, the species itself is less frost-resistant.
Siberian spring tree (Eranthis sibiricus / Shibateranthis sibirica)
It grows in Western and Eastern Siberia. It lives in near-forest forests with shrub alder undergrowth and on the edges of the forest belt, in the highlands it is usually confined to snow-covered lawns, less commonly seen in alpine and subalpine meadows and in subalpine cedar and cedar-larch woodlands.
A small tuberous plant that dries quickly after flowering. The stems are single, low, straight, weak. The basal leaf is one, early fading, its plate is 3-5-fingered-separate, lobes up to half truncated. In the middle part of the stem is a wrapper consisting of 5-6 whole or more or less notched segments. Single flowers at the top of the stem, white.
It blooms in May. Vegetation ends in June.
Star Spring (Eranthis stellata / Schibateranthis stellata)
Homeland - Far East. Destroyed as a result of fees for bouquets.
The plant is up to 20 cm tall. Herbaceous perennial with leafless stalk, two or three basal leaves, crowned with a single flower with white petals, slightly bluish-purple below. It grows in the deep shade of cedar-broad-leaved or mixed forests, as well as along the edges, on humus and well-moistened soil. Blooms in April.
The text of the scientific work on the theme "Biology of Eranthis sibirica DC. On Khamar-Daban (Southern Baikal)
UDC 582.93 (571.54)
BIOLOGY ERANTHIS SIBIRICA DC. ON KHAMAR-DABAN (SOUTH TRANS-Baikal region)
© 2013 V.M. Krasnopevtseva A.S. Krasnopevtseva
Baikal State Nature Biosphere Reserve
Received March 28, 2013
Information is given on the biology of a rare species, a relict of the Khamar-Daban ridge (Southern Baikal Region) Eranthis sibirica DC. - Siberian spring, listed in the Red Book of Buryatia and the Red Book of the Irkutsk Region.
Keywords: biology, reserve, relict, Red Book, Khamar-Daban ridge
Rare species of plants with a small range, having small populations in area, need state protection and monitoring. Relict species deserve priority attention. Such species growing on the Khamar-Daban ridge (Southern Baikal region) include Eranthis sibirica DC. - Siberian vesennik.
Nomenclature, systematic position.
Sem. Buttercups - (Ranunculaceae Juss.), Subfamily. Ranunculoideae.
Eranthis sibirica DC. - Shibateranthis sibirica (DC.) Nakai, 1937, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 51, 605: 364, Cherepnin, Fl. south h. Krasnoyarsk. cr., 1961, 3: 139, Popov, Fl. Wed Sib., 1959, 1: 239, Malyshev, Vysokogorn. fl. East Sayana, 1965: 368, Malyshev, Otd. alpine rast. South Sib.: 112, Krasnoborov, Vysokogorn. fl. West Sayana, 1976: 379, Peshkova, Fl. Center. Sib., 1979, 1: 341, - Eranthis sibirica DC, 1817, Reg. Veg. Syst. Nat. 1: 315, Shipchinsky, Fl. USSR 7: 61, Krylov, Fl. West Sib. 5: 1125, Fl. Wed Sib., 1957, 1: 230, Popov, Busik, 1966: 68, Fl. Sib., 1993, 6: 111, Cherepanov, Vascular. rast. Russia, 1995: 842, Abstract of Siberian Flora, 2005: 28 - Siberian spring.
Category of threatened condition - 3. Rare species. The relic of the non-moral complex of vegetation of the tertiary period is 8-11.
Origin, geographical distribution. Eranthis sibirica is endemic to the south of Central Siberia. It occurs mainly in Khamar-Daban and in the southeastern part of the Eastern Sayan (Okinsky, Tunkinsky
Krasnopevtseva Victoria Mikhailovna, candidate of biological sciences, head of the department of environmental education. E-mail: [email protected] Krasnopevtseva Aleksandra Semenovna, candidate of biological sciences, senior researcher
and Kitoy Alps). More rare in the mountains of the Western Sayan 17, 18, 2G, 22, 3G. The classic location is the spurs of the Khamar-Daban ridge, the northern macro slope. It seems to have a common ancestor with Shibateranthis stellata (Maxim.) Nakai. A related species is common in the Ussuriysk “near-shore” forest; several closely related species grow in China and Japan 7, 2G.
Phytocenotic confinement and habitat characterization. It lives in the forest and subalpine belts, and also occurs in the lower part of the char belt (up to 2300 m above sea level). Often forms clusters along the edges of the riverbanks and streams. In the highlands confined to snow-covered lawns. Within populations on the edges and along the banks of rivers and streams, clusters are found on an area of 50-100 square meters. m, in which the number of generative individuals per 1 sq. m reaches 12G. The main habitats are fir-cedar and cedar-fir sedge-cereal-tall grass forests, cedar woodlands with grass cover, subalpine and alpine meadows and nival lawns, mixed shrub tundra. The undergrowth consists of Duschekia fruticosa (Rupr.) Pouzar, Padus avium Miller, Sorbus sibirica Hedl., Spiraea flexuosa Fischer ex Gambess., Sambucus sibirica Nakai. In the grass layer, the upper tier forms a high grass (up to 1.0 - 1.5 m) - Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn ex Decken, Aconitum septentrionale Koolle, Thalictrum minus L., Saussurea parviflora (Poiret) DC., Veratrum lobelianum Bernh., Cirsium hen. (L.) Hill, Calamagrostis langsdorffi (Link.) Trin., In the second - up to 8G cm high - Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod., Trollius kytmanovii Reverd., Bupleurum aureum Fischer. In the third - Paris quadrifolia L., Anemone baicalensis Turcz., Primula pallasii Lehm. et al. A taiga shallow grass is characteristic of the fourth tier: Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F. W. Schmidt, Oxalis acetosella L. et al. Less commonly grows in
cedar-fir forests with a moss cover with a large participation of Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, Pyrola asarifolia Michaux, Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., etc. In the undergrowth - Padus avium, Sambucus sibirica, Ribes atropurpureum C. A. Meyer, Rosa acicularis Lindley, Rubus idaeus L.
On the territory of the Baikal Reserve, Eranthis sibirica lives on the northern macro slope of the Khamar-Daban ridge. It is found in fir, cedar, spruce, birch grass forests, in near-river forests with undergrowth from Duschekia fruticosa, in near-river subalpine meadows. Often forms clusters along the edges of the riverbanks and streams. In the highlands it is confined to snow-covered lawns, rarely grows in alpine meadows, in cedar and cedar-larch woodlands 2-4, 13.
Ecology, morphology, life form. Eranthis sibirica - perennial ephemeroid, psi-chromesophyte, semigeliophyte. It grows on acidic or neutral soils with a pH of from 4.55 to 6.15. It is more abundant in open places, but it also develops well in the forest, where it is less abundant. A root-root ephemeroid with a wintering spherical tuber from 1.0 to 1.7 (2.0) cm in diameter, located in the soil at a depth of 4 to 8 (15) cm. Lives for about 5 years. Stems up to 15-20 cm (at the beginning of flowering - 8-10 cm), with fruits up to 30 cm tall, straight, weak, leafless. The basal leaf is single, appears at the end of flowering, early fading, its plate 3-5-7 is palm-split, lobes up to half 3-notched. Leafless stalk, carries a wrapper. The wrapper is located in the upper half of the stem and consists of 5-6 segments, whole or more or less deeply incised, a peduncle with 5-7 grooves comes out from the middle of the wrapper, its length is 2-3 mm, then it increases to 5-15 mm. The number of grooves on the peduncle corresponds to the number of sepals. At the base of the peduncle is a scaly bract. The flower is usually single, 2-3 cm in diameter. Sepals are petal-shaped, white, including 57 (less often 8-9). Androecium from numerous stamens arranged in a spiral. Nectaries, including 5–9 (up to 14), are white, yellow-painted in the upper part, expanded in a glass, notched or 2-lobed, with long legs. Gynoecium apocarpous, from 3-9 (12) carpels on short legs with bent columns. The fruit is a leaflet containing 4-8 rounded seeds. Short-stalked fruit, obliquely inclined, narrow-lanceolate, with a short straight or slightly bent nose. On the slopes of the ridge. Hamar-Daban there are varieties of Siberian spring-nick with two flowers, with a double wrapper, lilac-pink flowers. Unlike most buttercups, in which
nectaries grow from rudimentary petals - primordia; in the Siberian spring, nectaries are formed from petal sepals. There are individuals with underdeveloped nectaries, in which there is a transition from a petal sepals to ordinary nectaries. Such specimens were found in the Siberian spring population in the river valley. Snowy and in a birch-fir-moss-lingonberry forest on the slope of the eastern exposition of the spurs of the ridge. Hamar-Daban.
Under the conditions of Khamar-Daban, the height of the Siberian spring-spring varies slightly. At the beginning of flowering, the height of the plant to the eyelet is 2.5-3.5 cm, at the end of flowering, from 1012 to 14-16 cm. When measuring plants with green fruits, the wrapper area was 26.68 ±, 1 sq. cm, height to wrapper 15.57 ± 2.99 cm, from wrapper to leaflet - 3.67 ± 0. 76 cm, plant height - 19.25 ± 3.32 cm. Leaf blade area - 26.68 ± 7, 10 sq. cm 14, 15.
Ontogenesis. The entire life cycle of Eranthis sibirica, according to the classification of T.A. Rabotnova and A.A. Uranova, can be divided into several periods corresponding to different age conditions. When studying populations of spring in nature, the following age groups were noted: seeds, juvenile, immature, virgin and generative plants. Senile (senile) period was not noted. In the first year, an assimilation leaf grows out of the seed and a small tuber with a diameter of 1 to 3 mm is formed, usually located at a depth of 4 to 8 cm. By the fall, a bud is laid in the upper part of the tuber, resting until spring. For one or two years, the plant passes through three periods - juvenile, immature and virgin. The generative period - flowering - occurs for 2-3 years. Vegetation usually begins in the second or third decade of April. At this time, a bud with an embryonic bud at the apex develops very quickly from the kidney. The bud is formed on the surface of the soil under the litter, most often under the snow, appears bent and pressed against the stem. Then the aerial part of the stem is lengthened, the bud comes to the surface and opens. The wrapper at the beginning of flowering is close to the flower and protects it. Then it is separated from it by a distance of 5 to 20 mm and plays the role of stem leaves. Flowering is quite long -3-4 weeks. At the end of flowering, a basal leaf appears. Reproduction is seed. Seeds are scattered as a result of cracking leaflets. Entomochoria in the distribution of seeds was not noted. Eranthis sibirica lives for about 5 years.
Seasonal rhythm of development. In the study of phenological development, the method of I.N. Beideman. Eranthis sibirica blooms early, immediately after melting snow: in the forest belt - in the second or third decade of April - the second half of May, in the highlands the flowering is more extended. In the conditions of Hamar-Daban, seasonal development significantly depends on meteorological conditions - air temperature, especially during the growth of spring ephemeroids, as well as on the amount of precipitation during the resting period - snow - from November to April. The first flowering individuals appear on the moist, warmed slopes of the western, southwestern, eastern, and southeastern exposures — along micro-depressions, along the edges of unfrozen snowfields. At the beginning of flowering, the soil remains frozen, with the exception of the upper layer of 1-2 cm. Somewhat later, individuals grow on the banks of streams and slopes of northwestern and northeastern exposures. The long-term dynamics of the seasonal development of Eranthis sibirica from 1973 to the present is as follows: the beginning of flowering is from 15.04 to 5.05, mass flowering is from 23.04 to 3.05, the end of flowering is from 05.17 to 2.6, mass ripening of seeds is from 10-18.06, the beginning of seeding is 13- 06/27, the appearance of autumn coloration in plants - June 20 to 1.07, the end of the growing season - July 25 - 08/16. In some years, isolated cases of secondary flowering in September (10-24.09) were noted. The difference in seasonal development depends on the habitat of the species. In snowfields, flowering specimens can be found until mid-July, with ripe fruits in August. The duration of flowering of the population is 3-4 weeks, one flower - up to 20 days. At the end of flowering, a basal leaf appears.
Consorting communications. In the Siberian spring, there were no cases of the formation of mycorrhiza with mushrooms, nodules on the roots, entomochoria in the distribution of seeds. Mostly one species of a fly from the Syrphidae family is involved in pollination. A mass outbreak of these insects is observed during the flowering of the spring, when other species are just starting to grow. Flies feed on the pollen and nectar of the Siberian spring. The plant does not eat animals.
Information about the biochemical composition of the species. It was established that representatives of the Ranunculaceae family can serve as sources of alkaloids, up to 1% of the dry weight of the plant. In addition, flavonoids, higher aliphatic hydrocarbons, saponins, vitamins and tannins are present in the aboveground mass.
Information on the introduction. Economic value. The most important task in preserving the gene pool is the cultivation of rare species in botanical gardens. Introduction
The endangered species is aimed at preserving the species itself in nature by creating artificial plantations. In addition, efforts are now aimed at reintroducing the species into nature when growing in culture, for example, ornamental plants that reproduce well by seed. Eranthis sibirica is a decorative, frost-resistant plant. Cultivation of the species is carried out in the Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the SB RAS (Novosibirsk) and the Botanical Garden of Irkutsk State University 24-26. According to some sources, Siberian spring is unpromising - 1 point
, for others - unpromising - 2 points
. It is of interest for genetics and selection as a multivariate species.
Protection recommendations. Reserves and reserves can serve as a standard for the study of rare and endangered, as well as valuable medicinal plants at the population level, since under these conditions it is possible for many years in nature to study the population structure in one place and monitor the direction and effect of natural selection and microevolutionary processes occurring in populations over time and under anthropogenic stress. Eranthis sibirica is under the protection of 2 nature reserves - Baikal and Sayano-Shushensky 16, 27. Recreation and economic use of the territory can threaten populations. Despite the preserved individual areas of the Siberian spring field with a rather large abundance, this species needs constant monitoring of the state of populations, a complete ban on the collection of flowering plants in the vicinity of settlements. And since the life span of the species is small (about 5 years) and it propagates only by seeds, in the absence of seed regeneration Eranthis sibirica can disappear in a significant area.
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ERANTHIS SIBIRICA DC BIOLOGY ON HAMAR-DABAN (SOUTHERN PRIBAIKALYE)
© 2013 V.M. Krasnopevtseva, A.S. Krasnopevtseva Baikal State Natural Biosphere Reserve
Data on biology of rare species, relict of Hamar-Daban ridge (Southern Pribaikalye) Eranthis sibirica DC., Included in the Red Book of Buryatia and the Red Book of Irkutsk oblast are provided.
Key words: biology, reserve, relict, Red Book, Hamar-Daban ridge
Re: Springtime or Erantis
Message polosa »Tue May 28, 2013 11:23 am
Spring tree or erantis, fam. Buttercups. Name: comes from the Greek words 'er' - spring and 'anthos' - a flower, and indicates the early flowering of most species. The genus has 7 species, common in Europe and Asia. In the former USSR, 3 species of spring plants grow: long-legged (E. longistipitata) in Central Asia, Siberian (E. sibirica) in Western and Eastern Siberia, and star-shaped (E. stellata) in the Far East. A perennial herb with a tuberous-thickened root. The leaves are basal, palmate-separate, including 1-2. The flowers are single, wide open. The corolla-like cup consists of 5-8 dark yellow sepals up to 3 cm in diameter, while the corolla petals turned into tiny glands. Immediately under the flower is a whorl of deeply dissected stem large leaves, especially decorative in fruit. Peduncles up to 25 cm long. Basal leaves appear during flowering or later. Bloom in early spring for 2-3 weeks. Fruits on short or long stalks, linear or oval, are located star-shaped. Seeds are small, spherical, brownish-yellow.
Erantis long-legged - E. longistipitata Regel. Homeland - Central Asia. A species resembling a winter spring, but significantly inferior to it in size. The plant is up to 25 cm tall. The flowers are yellow. It blooms in May.
Erantis stellate - E. stellata Maxim. = Schibateranthis stellata (Maxim.). Homeland - Far East. Destroyed as a result of fees for bouquets. The plant is up to 20 cm tall. Herbaceous perennial with leafless stalk, two or three basal leaves, crowned with a single flower with white petals, slightly bluish-purple below. It grows in the deep shade of cedar-broad-leaved or mixed forests, as well as along the edges, on humus and well-moistened soil. Blooms in April.
Erantis winter - E. hyemalis (L.) Salisb. The birthplace of the spring is Southern Europe: the southern regions of France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria. It is found in forests under deciduous trees, on mountain slopes, on well-drained alkaline soils. A plant with an underground stem that has thickenings in the form of nodules the size of a hazelnut. Basal leaves, in an amount of 1-2, in the form of palmate. Cup-shaped six-petalled yellow flowers are collected in 3-6 pieces. at the ends of leafless peduncles 15–20 cm high. Under the flowers are green, leaf-shaped, dissected, very elegant bracts. Flowering is very early, at the end of winter, directly from under the snow. Moreover, first flowers appear, and later leaves. Flowers are open only during the day, in sunny weather, in cloudy corolla petals fold in the form of a house and protect the pestle and stamens from possible rain. The aerial part of the plant dies shortly after flowering in late May - early June. There remains a bare ground, in which an underground stem with nodules and buds is preserved. In a culture since 1570. Varieties:
`Noel Ay res' - this form of a winter spring with double flowers was discovered by a gardener of one of the abbeys in Cambridgeshire (Great Britain) and named after him.
`Orange Glow` - cultivar with yellow flowers, bred in the Botanical Garden of Copenhagen (Denmark).
`Pauline` - garden variation, received by Patricia Dale in Petersfield (UK) in 1988.
Erantis siberian - E. sibiricas (L.) Salisb. = Shibateranthis sibirica (DC.) Grows in Western and Eastern Siberia. It lives in near-forest forests with shrub alder undergrowth and on the edges of the forest belt, in the highlands it is usually confined to snow-covered lawns, less commonly seen in alpine and subalpine meadows and in subalpine cedar and cedar-larch woodlands. A small tuberous plant that dries quickly after flowering. The stems are single, low, straight, weak. The basal leaf is one, early fading, its plate is 3-5-fingered-separate, lobes up to half truncated. In the middle part of the stem is a wrapper consisting of 5-6 whole or more or less notched segments. Single flowers at the top of the stem, white. It blooms in May. Vegetation ends in June.
Erantis of Cilicia - E. cilicica schott et kotschy = E. hyemalis Cilicica group. It grows in Greece and Asia Minor. The species was introduced to Europe from in 1892. It reaches 10 cm in height, the flowers are larger than those of E. hyemalis. Young leaves are reddish-violet, very finely and deeply dissected. The stem leaves under the flower are also dissected into narrow lobes. It blooms 14 days later than E. hyemalis, flowering is less active, the species itself is less frost-resistant.
Erantis cirrus - E. pinnatifida. Japanese look with white flowers, with yellow nectaries and blue stamens. Despite the fact that the plants are considered very hardy, they are still better to grow in pots in a greenhouse-rock gardens. Unlike other spring plants, they are not too sensitive to the content of lime in the soil.
Erantis Tubergen - E. tubergenii = E. hyemalis group Tubergenii. It is a hybrid between E. Kilisky and E. winter. It has larger tubers and bracts, the flowers do not form pollen and do not produce seeds, and therefore bloom longer. Guinea Gold variety is known - plants 8-10 cm high, dark yellow sterile flowers 3-4 cm in diameter are surrounded by bronze-green bracts, flowering is longer. The variety was obtained in 1979 in Holland. And `Glory` - the variety is distinguished by large yellow flowers and soft green foliage.
Location: photophilous, well developed in shaded areas. In low areas, springs can die under an ice crust. V. Cilicia (E. cilicica) and c. Tubergen (E. X tubergenii) is less hardy than in. winter.
Soil: require light, nutritious soils with sufficient moisture and alkaline reaction.
Propagation: mainly by seed, as the formation of new tubers is negligible. Seeds are sown immediately after harvest or in autumn in shaded areas. In spring crops, seeds germinate only after stratification. Stratify 2 weeks at 1-20 degrees and 2-3 months at 2-3 degrees. It is possible to grow without stratification, but the seedlings will not be friendly. The most entrepreneurial winter sowing. Shoots appear in the spring, and in the first year only cotyledon leaves are formed, which quickly die off. Therefore, it seems that the plants died, but they manage to form small nodules, which sprout next spring and give one real leaf. The nodules formed in the next season are dug up and planted in place at the usual time. In the spring of the third year, as a rule, they already bloom. Spring plants can propagate by self-sowing, forming large colonies. Seedlings sometimes appear in places quite distant from the plantings, since the seeds are taken away by the ants.
The depth of planting of tubers is about 5 cm, the distance between them is 6-8 cm. Plant groups are especially decorative; for this, 3–6 tubers are placed in one hole filled with compost mixed with a small amount of lime. Once every two to three years, it can be propagated by separating the daughter bulbs. They are very small and look like lumps of clay. Therefore, when digging the soil, it is recommended to sift the soil. To get more plants, during the summer transplant, the tuber is cut into pieces, the sections are sprinkled with charcoal powder and planted divisions. It is better to plant nodules immediately after digging. If planting is delayed, then they are stored in wet peat or sand, otherwise they will dry out and will not germinate next spring. The last landing date is the end of August. Under suitable conditions, in one place, a spring can bloom well for 4-5 years. It is important, after dying off the aerial parts, to prevent weeds from overgrowing the earth, and also not to trample this place.
Use: very effective in group planting on the lawn and under the canopy of trees or along the edge of a group of shrubs. Spring trees are very bright and elegant spring plants on an alpine hill. It must be remembered that springs are ephemeroids (the aboveground shoots turn yellow and dry out in June, shortly after seed ripening).
Partners: springs are well combined with other ephemeroids - snowdrops (Galanthus spp.), Saffron (Crocus spp.), Merenderers (Merendera spp.), Rubbish (Cyclamen spp.). Such flowering groups look good on a dark green background of dwarf conifers.