Latin name: Macodes
Family: Orchidaceae (Orchidaceae)
Kind Macodes has up to 7 species.
Title "Macodes" comes from the Greek "macos" (length, extension), reflecting the elongated lip shape.
Spread: Found in tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia and Oceania
Bloom: in autumn and winter.
Description: Representatives of the genus terrestrial or epiphytic orchids of the Orchidaceae family (Orchidaceae), having a sympodial type of growth. Belongs to the group "Jevel Orchids" ("precious orchids"), cultivated for the decorative leaf.
The most famous species of "Macodes Petola" refers to the so-called few precious orchids, whose beauty of the leaves is mesmerizing. It seems that the leaves are embroidered with golden threads that shimmer in the sun. It is because of the decorative leaves that this orchid is called a jewel.
In nature, the Macodes Petola orchid is found on the islands of Java, from Sumatra to the Philippines, Malaysia, New Guinea, where it grows in tropical forests (in mountain shady forests) in high humidity conditions (on moss and humus covered rocks, fallen tree trunks )
The stems of this unusual miniature orchid (Makodez petola) spread along the surface of the substrate and branch all the time, reaching a height of 7-8 cm. The color of velvety leaves varies from salad and emerald to gray-green with golden veins that glisten and flicker in the light. Blooms inconspicuous with small flowers, after which the rosette dies, giving lateral processes (children). Use in collections, expositions of winter gardens.
Care: This is a terrestrial precious orchid adapted for existence under the forest canopy in conditions of high humidity. Appropriate conditions for it are also required when it is kept in culture. It can grow in poor lighting conditions, but it requires a constantly moist substrate, high air humidity (at least 80-90%) and a warm content. That is why Makodes Petola is recommended to grow an orchid in florariums or a greenhouse.
Temperature: It should keep around 22-25 degrees all the time, and for good growth at night, it should be 4-5 degrees lower. If you make highlighting all year round, the dormant period does not occur.
In summer, Makodez feels great outdoors, for example, on a balcony. The main thing is to protect it from direct rays, strong wind and rain.
Lighting: This type of orchid is not very demanding on lighting; it easily coexists in partial shade. But if you nevertheless put makodes on the windows on the sunny side, then bother to shade the plant from direct rays, otherwise burns will appear on the leaves.
Humidity:IMPORTANT. Makodez is very hygrophilous, because his homeland is the tropics. Therefore, air humidity should ideally be around 80-90%. You can get closer to this level by placing the pot on a pallet with wet expanded clay. In addition, the plant needs regular spraying - twice a day. You will notice a lack of moisture right away, because the makodez will develop worse, and the tips of its magnificent leaves will begin to change color.
Watering: Must be plentiful and frequent all year round.
You can navigate by the moisture content of the substrate - it should dry, but not completely dry. You should know that this plant reacts very poorly to the salts contained in the water, so tap water is not recommended, especially if it is hard. It’s best to filter, or at least defend. Before watering, it is better to warm the water to 30-45 ° and shower it with water. Do not forget to make good drainage - if the plant is poured, the roots may rot.
Transfer: The best time for a transplant is from early March to late April. Macodes Petola loves crowding, in accordance with this, they select a plastic pot, in diameter not more than 6 cm.
Fertilizer: Makodes is fed Petola very carefully so as not to burn the delicate roots of the plant. Once every 3 weeks from spring to autumn, and the rest of the time every 5 weeks (3-4 drops per 2 liters). Too concentrated fertilizer can adversely affect the roots. It is necessary to use specialized fertilizer marked "for orchids." Fertilizers for home plants contain a slightly different composition of substances and their dosage is much higher than necessary for our orchid.
Reproduction: In room culture, this type of precious orchid is propagated vegetatively: by dividing an adult (large) bush into parts and cuttings. With vegetative division, it is recommended to leave at least three sprouts on each new plant. At Makodez Petola, the stem is creeping and branched. If roots have formed near adult leaves, then cuttings can be carried out. Part of the stem is cut into a stalk, with 2-3 stem nodes and a spine. The wound is disinfected, sprinkled with charcoal or activated carbon powder, dried and planted in a substrate. It is possible to root in water with the addition of crushed charcoal. Macodez can be propagated by leafless stem cuttings, which are placed in a horizontal position (without deepening) in a wet sphagnum.
Diseases and pests: Stagnant water in the pan or inside the pot can very quickly lead to decay of the lower part of the plant and roots, so watering should be regular, as the substrate dries.
Application: Use in collections, expositions of winter gardens.
Macodes (Macodes) - a precious orchid, is a representative of the Orchidaceae family. The homeland of Makodez is the hot and humid tropic forests of the islands of the Malay Archipelago, Oceania, New Guinea, and the Philippines.
Literally translated from Greek, the name of the plant means "length". With this word, the structure of the flowering lip was characterized.
Makodez is classified as a precious type of orchid because of highly decorative leaves, velvet to the touch with an intricate pattern of veins. Such orchids in the wild lead an epiphytic or terrestrial way of life. The leaves of orchids are so beautiful that they seem to be pierced by veins of a precious metal - silver or gold. There are also leaves with streaks of shades of red copper or bronze. The color of the leaves is green, brown, olive and even black. Thanks to the combination of shades of leaves and veins, a spectacular indoor plant is obtained. Macodes blooms with small nondescript flowers collected on a peduncle.
Temperature and humidity
Orchid is a thermophilic plant that needs warm temperature conditions. Throughout the year, the average daily air temperature for them is 22-29 ° C, the night one is 18-19 ° C, with an amplitude of 5-9 ° C per day. Therefore, in the warm season, it is advisable to take the tropical beauty out into the open air.
In nature, the culture grows in conditions of high humidity. This is a key factor in caring for Makodes indoors.
An ideal option would be to grow orchids in a special greenhouse or terrarium, although many experienced flower growers claim that Makodes tolerates humidity well below 85%. Ensure it will help regular spraying of air and a tray with wet pebbles as a stand for the pot.
The tropical beauty needs abundant regular watering, especially during the period of active growth. The substrate should not dry out, but excess moisture will be detrimental to the plant, as it causes rotting of the root system.
Water as the top layer of the substrate dries, evenly distributing moisture over its surface. The leaves should remain dry. In a slightly pronounced dormant period, which falls in the winter, watering a little restrict.
Water for irrigation should be at room temperature, soft, without salts and impurities. It is best to use rain or filtered.
Light needs diffused, low intensity. Plants should not be exposed to direct sunlight, which quickly leads to burns of delicate foliage.
A good option would be north, northwest or northeast exposure. On the south side, the pot can be moved inland.
Macodez orchid care, home growing
- Location and lighting. A place on the eastern or western windowsill is suitable, as the bright direct rays of the sun can leave burns. If makodes is grown under fluorescent lamps, then they try to maintain daylight hours for 14 hours a day.
Content temperature in the daytime should be within 20-24 degrees, and at night should not fall below 18 units.
Air humidity when growing makodes, it should always be increased - 80–90% and at the same time spraying the leaves is prohibited or it will be necessary to wipe the leaves with napkins after this procedure. Water should be soft and warm. If moisture readings drop, then the orchid stops growing. It is best to grow a plant in the florarium.
Watering. Almost year-round, it is recommended that the soil moisture for Macodez be regular and plentiful. Drying the soil in the pot is unacceptable, since the "jewel" is very sensitive to lower humidity. However, with waterlogging of the substrate, the orchid may begin to rot the root system. Experienced flower growers recommend conducting the so-called "lower watering" when water is poured into a stand under a pot with a plant. Only soft and warm water is used. Drops of moisture on the leaves are not allowed, since they may leave whitish spots that can no longer be removed due to the velvety surface of the leaves, and this can also lead to the beginning of decay of the whole plant. If the temperature is below 18 degrees, then watering is stopped, since the root system will not have time to take moisture from the soil. Therefore, you will need to slightly increase the heat in the room, and then water the Macodez.
Rest period at the “jewel”, if it is grown outdoors, it falls at the beginning of October and its end at the end of winter. If the plant is cultivated in greenhouses or it is illuminated year-round using fluorescent lamps, then there may not be a rest period. If the orchid went into a dormant state, then it is kept at a heat index of 18–20 degrees.
Fertilizers For makodes, top dressing is applied only during active growth and flowering. Frequency - once a month. Compositions for orchids are used. The main thing here is not to overdo it, since then the pattern on the sheet plates will disappear from this “jewel”.
This process can begin after the flowering of the orchid is completed. Since makodes has a sympodial type of growth, when transplanting the plant is installed in the pot slightly obliquely, as if laying it on a substrate. In this case, it is necessary to tie the shoots to the peg or in-depth support at the wall of the flowerpot. Macodes can be hung from a pot (as if "overboard") and it is recommended to strengthen it so that under its own weight the plant does not turn the pot over. Planting is carried out in such a way that the entire vegetative mass is placed at the edge of the container, at the very wall of the pot.
In an empty pot, a support is placed against the wall and then it is fixed motionless, sprinkled with a layer of drainage, or tied to the flowerpot itself, pulled through the drainage holes. Florists use bamboo sticks as such a support, but the frame made of stainless steel or aluminum wire is most suitable. Part of the rhizome is captured in it and then the support is fixed to the wall or the bottom of the flowerpot. The rhizome at the same time in makodes is placed in a horizontal plane. It is such a planting that will become a stimulation for the growth of the rhizome, since it always begins to grow sideways, it tends to horizontal in the free surface of the pot or substrate. Subsequently, “internodes” will begin to grow from it, having sleeping kidneys, giving rise to vertically growing new leaves and pseudobulbs.
After the makodez has been transplanted, the orchid is placed in a warm place with diffuse, but bright lighting, while the humidity level should be increased - this will help the plant adapt to the new conditions as soon as possible.
The substrate for transplantation is selected nutritious. Most of all, for this “precious orchid”, a soil mixture consisting of: peat, leaf humus (it is better to take it from birch trees), crushed charcoal, chopped fern roots and small pieces of pine bark is most suitable. You can also use ready-made substrates for orchids.
Do-it-yourself makodez breeding
Propagation of the plant can be carried out by rooting the cuttings, dividing the overgrown rhizome, or using stem segments.
Since this “precious orchid” is the owner of a sympodial type of growth, it is possible to propagate it when several “nodules” with young leaf plates and pseudobulbs have formed on the rhizome. But you must not forget that not every leaf will have a pseudobulb. Rhizome can have both leaf plates with petioles, and pseudobulbs with leaves. In order to divide the sympodial orchid, you will need to cut the rhizome into parts with nodes (preferably three). Each node must have at least a pair of pseudobulbs with leaf plates and their own root processes, collected in a bundle. Then the slices must be sprinkled with powdered powder from activated carbon or charcoal. After some drying, the delenki are seated in separate pots filled with a suitable substrate.
When propagating with cuttings, the time is suitable during the period of activation of vegetative activity. The cuttings are cut and the cut is also powdered with powdered charcoal for disinfection and slightly dried. After that, the makodez harvest can be planted in a moistened sphagnum moss, laid in a pot. At the same time, the cuttings are deepened to the very base of the leaf blade. However, care must be taken that the leaf itself is not immersed in the substrate.
When propagating a “precious orchid” using stem segments, rooting is also carried out in chopped sphagnum moss.
Diseases and pests when growing Macodez
If there is a violation of the conditions of detention when caring for this "precious orchid", then multiple problems associated with the appearance of harmful insects or diseases can begin.
Among the pests affecting makodes, whiteflies, mealybugs, scabies and spider mites are distinguished.It is recommended to start washing the leaves of orchids under the streams of the shower. Then they are wiped with non-chemical means: tincture on garlic gruel or onion husks, oily, alcoholic and soapy solutions.
Diseases, however, affect the plant when it was not paid attention to the fact that the orchid began to bloom, and this is not always favorable for young specimens. They have not yet gained enough strength, and flowering greatly tires them, so the plant becomes sluggish and lifeless and can not resist pests and diseases. Typically, the stimulus for flowering is a large difference between day and night temperature readings. If the temperature is kept constant, then this helps to save Makodez from unnecessary waste of energy. When the flower stalk is still formed, it is recommended to carefully remove it.
It is advisable not to put a pot of “precious orchid” next to heating appliances in winter, increased heat and reduced air humidity will negatively affect the appearance and growth of makodez.
If the level of lighting is small, then the plant will be greatly elongated and its decorative effect will decrease. Most of all, it is important to maintain the correct watering regime when growing this orchid, as the drying of an earthen coma, and especially its bay, will lead to decay of the root system. When direct sunlight hits the plant for a long time, the orchid will begin to fade.
Interesting facts about Macodez orchid
When this “precious orchid” blooms (for example, the view of Makodez Petola) it blooms in small and completely devoid of decorative value flowers. However, after the buds are dry, the leaf rosette dies and new shoots appear to replace it, since it gives many lateral processes (children). Often, these plants are grown in winter gardens and private collections.
Types of Macodes
- Macodes Petola The native territories of growth are on the lands of the islands of Sumatra and the Philippines. In this “precious orchid”, the diameter of the rhizome reaches 3–5 cm, while the part located vertically has a height of about 6–10 cm. Creeping and fleshy shoots. Rhizome is the beginning for several leaf blades, the length of which reaches 7.5 cm with a width of almost 5 cm. Their shape is mainly ovoid with a tip at the apex. The leaves are velvety to the touch. The general background in which the leaf plates are painted is dark green or saturated emerald. On the surface there is a pattern of longitudinal golden veins and a mesh of small transversely veins. This pattern flickers beautifully in the light. When flowering, a flower-bearing stalk is formed, which stretches to a height of 20–25 cm. It carries a racemose inflorescence, consisting of 8–15 flowers, painted in a reddish and brown hue. Lip directed upward with a touch of white tint. The flowering process begins in the autumn-winter period.
Macodes Sanderiana has leaves of elliptical outlines. On the surface there is a pattern of silver curls, which very effectively show up against a dark green general background, which can sometimes be replaced by marsh brown. When flowering, a brush inflorescence appears, collected from creamy white small flowers. They have a rather pleasant aroma.
More information about Macodes in the video below:
Location and lighting
Makodes does not tolerate bright sunlight. From them on the precious leaves appear significant burns. The orchid will feel best in a dark place. In winter, when daylight hours become short, Makodez needs additional lighting. To do this, you need to put the plant under a daylight lamp and extend the daylight hours to 14 hours a day.
Daytime air temperature for optimal growth and development of makodes should vary from 22 to 25 degrees. This rule applies to both cold and warm seasons. At night, the temperature should not drop below 18 degrees. Leaves are very sensitive to temperature extremes. Too low a temperature leads to the fact that a burgundy shade unusual for them appears on the leaves.
Macodes came from tropical forests, which are never lacking in moisture. Therefore, the optimal level of air humidity for a plant varies between 80-90% and should not fall below. If this happened, then the orchid will begin to slow down growth, lose the decorative color of the leaves. A great place to grow Macodes is the florarium.
Orchids can be sprayed regularly with a spray gun, which will create the finest spray. Water for such a procedure should be distilled or settled, not lower than room temperature. It is important that the water is not hard, as there may be sediment on the leaves.
In the spring-summer period, makodez is in a herd of active growth and development, so during this period the flower will be grateful for a warm shower with a water temperature of 35 degrees. After the procedure, the leaves of Macodez are wiped with a soft cloth or a rag and only after they have completely dried, the plant is transferred to the room.
Macodes needs regular, plentiful watering throughout the year. The soil in the pot should not dry out, since the orchid is very sensitive to drought. But to arrange a swamp in a pot is also not worth it, as this is fraught with decay of the root system. The bottom irrigation method is best suited for which soft, settled water of room temperature is used. It is important that when watering, water does not get into the axils of the leaves, otherwise the plant may begin to rot.
If the room temperature is below 18 degrees, then with watering at this time it is better to wait. At such a low temperature, the roots of the plant do not take water from the soil, but begin to rot. Therefore, at first it is worth increasing the ambient temperature in the room and only after that water the plant.
Soil must be nutritious. The optimal soil for makodez consists of peat, leaf soil, charcoal, chopped fern roots and small pieces of pine bark. You can put sphagnum moss on top. You can prepare the substrate yourself or buy it in a flower shop ready for orchids.
During the growing season, 1/2 of the recommended dose of fertilizer for representatives of orchid is fed every week.
Some gardeners prefer to make balanced mineral fertilizing throughout the year, others apply fertilizers from spring to mid-summer with a high nitrogen content, and then fertilize with high phosphorus levels before winter.
Transplanted makodes as necessary immediately after flowering. If the roots of the plant are completely covered with an earthen lump, then such an orchid needs to be transplanted into a wider pot. After transplantation, makodez is placed in a warm, lit place with a high level of air humidity, thus helping to better adapt to new conditions.
For macrodesa grown in the open air, the rest period begins in October and ends in February. If makodes grows in a greenhouse or is year-round under fluorescent lamps, then such a plant has no dormant period. At the onset of the rest period, makodes should be kept at an air temperature of 18 to 20 degrees.
Makodez can be propagated in the following ways: cuttings, division of rhizomes, stem segments.
Macodez cuttings can be propagated throughout the growing season. A cut of the handle is sprinkled with activated charcoal, dried and planted in sphagnum in moist moss. To deepen the stalk is necessary at the very base of the leaf. It is important not to allow deepening of the sheet itself on the handle.
When makodes is propagated by stem segments, they are also rooted in sphagnum. If the method of division of the rhizome is chosen, then at least 3 germs should be left.
Popular types of makodes
Makodes Petola - a precious orchid with wide ovate leaves, velvety to the touch of a saturated emerald color. Streaks on leaves of golden color, flicker in the sun. Creeping shoots, fleshy, rhizome reaches 5 cm in diameter. The width of the leaves is about 5 cm, the length varies from 6 to 8 cm. The flowers, like other types of precious orchids, are small, collected in inflorescences in the form of a cyst up to 15 pieces. Shades of red with an admixture of brown. Peduncle can reach about 20-25 cm in height.