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Complete characteristics of the Doberman breed


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Since the oldest information on the treatment of animals date back to the 4th millennium BC. e., then we can safely say that for such a long time, mankind has accumulated a solid veterinary experience. Well, let's see what's what.

Origin of breed

Doberman is one of the few breeds whose origin is almost beyond doubt. She appeared at the end of the XIX century. The dogs owe their name to Friedrich Dobermann, who dreamed of breeding an ideal service breed, characterized by viciousness, fearlessness and endurance.

Initially, however, the breed was called differently - the Thuringian Pinscher, and only after the death of the Doberman was called the Doberman Pinscher.

For mating, the ancestors of the Rottweilers ("butcher" dogs), German pinschers, greyhounds, Beaucerons, dogs and other breeds were used. The exact data can not be called, since the stud books were not kept. However, breeding was not successful, as the dogs were characterized by excessive excitability and uncontrollability. Outwardly, the first Dobermans were like lightweight Rottweilers.

The first exhibition, in which the Doberman Pinscher participated, was held in 1987 in Erfurt, and in 1899 the first club of fans of this breed was created in Apold.

In 1949, in connection with numerous disputes over the origin of dogs, Dobermann Pinschers were turned into Dobermans, removing the prefix "Pinscher" from the name.

Today Dobermans are actively used in the police, search and rescue, search, protective and guard services, customs services, in a word, wherever their lightning-fast reaction, fearlessness and special flair are required. By the way, the dog Tref - the legend of the detective police of the times of tsarist Russia - participated in the disclosure of 1,500 crimes!

Breed standard

The appearance of the Dobermans does not have the slightest hint of weightiness or infantility. These are muscular, athletically built dogs, from which it blows with strength and power. According to the standard, growth at the withers of males is up to 72 cm, bitches - up to 68 cm, weights 45 and 35, respectively.

  1. The head is wedge-shaped.
  2. The muzzle is wide, with tight-fitting lips. The forehead is flat.
  3. The teeth are white with a scissor bite. Mandatory characteristic "smile", opening molars.
  4. The eyes are medium sized, dark. With brown and ashy color can have a light shade. The gaze is tenacious, alert, alert.
  5. Ears set high, erect, cropped.
  6. The withers are high, long, well developed.
  7. The neck is dry, muscular.
  8. The back is strong, straight, lumbar slightly convex.
  9. The chest is oval, reaching to the elbows, moderately wide. The abdomen is retracted, forming a beautiful line in the lower part.
  10. The limbs are straight, the back with good angles.
  11. The tail is thin, long, set high.

The hair is short, stiff, the hair adjacent to the skin to the hair - "carapace". No undercoat. Among the acceptable colors are brown and tan and black.

Health, typical diseases

Dobermans, despite the active breeding work that was carried out on them, have good health and not many genetic diseases. The average life expectancy of this breed is 13–16 years.

Dobermans, as a rule, do not suffer from diseases characteristic of service dogs. Metabolic disorders, epilepsy, ophthalmic pathologies are diagnosed in rare cases. Hereditary pathologies include:

  • dysplasia of the hip and elbow joints,
  • intermittent claudication (panostitis),
  • Wobbler syndrome (chronic displacement of the cervical vertebrae, dislocation, subluxation),
  • Willebrand-Jurgens syndrome (bleeding disorder due to platelet pathology),
  • hypothyroidism (disruption of the thyroid gland due to a lack of hormones).

Dobermans sometimes have cardiomyopathy (a pathology of the heart muscle that has lost tone). The main symptoms: decreased stamina, cough, blue skin, apathy. The disease can occur in acute and chronic form. At the first there are great risks of death, for the second - the deterioration of the animal.

In addition, representatives of this breed are at risk, subject to deadly pathologies - inversion of the intestinal loop, torsion of the stomach. The disease is characterized by the displacement of part of the organ, its incorrect position due to a sharp movement during running or in the classroom.

Tissues deprived of blood circulation die, which leads to sepsis and death. A sad outcome can be prevented only in cases of timely surgical intervention.

Separately, it is worth mentioning the vicious type susceptible to genetic mutation. The white variety of Dobermans, which does not meet the standard, has a whole bunch of genetic diseases, among which photophobia, melanoma only open a depressing list.


Needless to say, the Dobermans' reputation is not flattering: they are angry, cocky, with an unbalanced temperament. However, this opinion is not entirely true. The breed is not prone to unmotivated anger, attacks on people and animals. Breeders deliberately worked to soften the character of the Doberman, improve its socialization and consolidate a number of qualities such as observation, endurance, devotion to man.

Education, training in discipline from a very young age and competent training will help to form a healthy psyche in a dog. Trained Dobermans execute commands strictly - the need to realize their service potential lies in them at the genetic level. By the way, in some kennels, a prerequisite for buying a puppy is that the owner passes special courses of UGS (guided city dog).

Dobermans are very attached to their masters and constantly seek contact, miss them, which is expressed in endless barking and howling. In order not to annoy the neighbors, the dog needs to be trained to calmly tolerate the absence of domestic animals. Unconditionally recognize a person who is considered a leader, but friendly and sociable with all family members.

The attitude towards children is rather neutral, but it is not recommended to leave the Doberman alone with the kids, as a dog patiently enduring all childish fun can turn into an aggressive animal in one instant.

Dobermans are wary of strangers, in some cases they can show aggression. For example, an outsider should not tempt fate and try to stroke the dog. Most likely, the dog will trigger an innate protective instinct, which can lead to an incident. Being in a company with a Doberman, you should never forget about his lightning-fast reaction, excitability and desire at all costs to protect the territory entrusted to him and himself from danger.

How to choose a puppy

Choosing a Doberman puppy is a responsible matter. It is advisable to make a purchase in a kennel with a good reputation, where they will give a puppy metric to the dog, provide information about their parents, inform about vaccinations, feeding habits.

You can also try your luck at specialty shows to chat with breeders and see dogs. You can buy a puppy there inexpensively, since the breed is not very popular, respectively, the price even for high-quality litters is quite adequate.

Prices for purebred puppies range from 20,000 to 90,000 rubles. A kid without documents can be purchased for 10 thousand rubles, for example, on the market or by an ad on the Internet, but in this case you can not be sure that the puppy is healthy.

When choosing a puppy, pay attention to its behavior and appearance. He should be energetic, agile and inquisitive, moderately well-fed, with healthy shiny coat and clean eyes.

Care Features

Caring for a Doberman is not easy, and the main difficulties are not bathing and combing at all, but proper exercise planning. The little Doberman should not be overloaded with exercises - the ligaments and joints will suffer, but letting him sit back is also impossible for his own good. Loads should be regular, the pace is increasing gradually.

A good decision would be to engage in any kind of sports with your pet - jogging, skiing, cycling. A smart and hardy dog ​​will be happy to run near you, without feeling tired and enjoying spending time with the owner.

Dobermans do not tolerate cold, damp, and dirty, so for the cold season, you need to buy your pet the appropriate clothes - a thick raincoat, insulated jumpsuit, and even in severe frosts - even shoes. If your dog has cropped ears, then he will also need a hat, otherwise the thin tips will freeze and fall off.

It is a well-known fact that Dobermans, even well-educated and trained, react very violently to different sounds. Even the unexpected popping of an opening umbrella, what can I say about the explosion of firecrackers, can lead the dog into confusion and make him run wherever his eyes look. That is why in public places the Doberman should be kept on a leash, a muzzle is required.

Another problem is the curiosity of the Dobermans, which is expressed in the deterioration of household property. They are interested in literally everything - from shoes to furniture, so attempts to try a thing to taste should be immediately stopped tightly. A bored dog needs to be provided with as many toys as possible so that he can nibble them freely.

It is not recommended to keep Doberman on the street. This can lead to loss of contact with the whole family, which is undesirable. If you plan to keep a pet in the apartment, then be prepared to deal with molting. Short and stiff hair pours from the dog constantly, and you will see it everywhere.

The dog should be combed out at least three times a week, during molting - a couple of times a day. If you accustom your pet to this procedure from early childhood, then, as an adult, he will gladly substitute his sides and back for a comb.

You should bathe your pet as necessary, wipe your eyes daily, brush your ears and teeth once a week.

Pros and cons of the breed

If you need a good guard, a reliable guard, and you are ready to devote a lot of time to a dog, then you can be sure that the Doberman is the breed that you need.

The advantages of Dobermans include:

  • determination,
  • excellent flair
  • learning ability
  • devotion to the owner
  • good health.

Among the minuses are plentiful molting, the need to purchase warm clothes, and a low threshold of excitability.


Doberman - a proud, graceful and noble dog, distinguished by intelligence and ingenuity. Not surprisingly, these dogs are called four-legged aristocrats. The breed was originally bred as an official, but after a while the Dobermans became favorite pets for dog lovers who needed a loyal and reliable companion

Now dogs of this breed are kept mainly for the protection of private households or simply as “four-legged family members”. Dobermans are magnificent bloodhounds, they have an amazingly developed flair and scent. Dogs are very smart, capable of making decisions themselves. Life expectancy is up to 16 years, some individuals survived to 21 years.

The history of the origin of the Dobermans

Doberman breed was bred in Germany at the end of the 19th century by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann (in whose honor the dog is named). Moreover, the breed was originally called the Thuringian Pinscher, and only after the death of Dobermann himself in 1894, this name was replaced by a Doberman Pinscher. Some time later, the prefix "pincher" disappeared and the dogs were simply called "Doberman".

There is no detailed information about the origin of the breed - for the reason that the creator of the breed F. L. Doberman did not keep any records on this subject. There are suggestions that the breed was bred by multiple breeding of short-haired shepherd dogs, a Rottweiler, as well as a black and tan terrier and a smooth-haired German pinscher. It is highly probable that the blood of the hounds, the Great Dane and Greyhound played a role in the formation of the breed and its exterior.

Calling Friedrich Doberman the sole creator of the nature of aristocratic dogs would be somewhat unfair, because he, because of his death, did not have time to complete the selection work to the end. Otto Geller became the successor of the case, and he is considered to be the "father of the breed", because it was he who managed to combine the "clever servant" and a family friend in this dog.

After World War I, the Dobermans population declined significantly. In the 20s and 30s of the last century, dogs were used in law enforcement and the army. After the Second World War, the situation was even worse - all available breeding programs were transferred to the United States, since Germany was going through the most difficult economic and political times. It is generally accepted that if it weren’t for individuals that were hastily evacuated to the United States, the breed would simply have died out.

Popular colors Dobermans

The most common color for Dobermans is black or brown, with tan tan-red hues (some breeders call them rusty-red). Other requirements are imposed on taps - they must be clearly marked, with a certain pattern, and be located only in strictly defined places. The coat is shiny, short and very stiff, always snug against the dog’s body, the undercoat is not pronounced.

The most common flaws in the coat:

  • Soft and wavy coat
  • Light or vice versa, overly darkened tan marks. Or located not where needed,
  • White or light gray markings,
  • Thick, clearly visible undercoat.

Only amateurs can be sure that the Doberman can only have a black and tan color - the modern standard involves 4 color options: black, red, blue and deer (it is also known as "Isabella").

The colors listed above were not immediately included in the standard. Initially, the first 1899 standard allowed only one Doberman coat color - black and tan, but by 1901 2 more species were allowed: red and tan and blue and tan.

Deer color was recognized only in 1969 (which is interesting - in the 1st standard it was not even mentioned). The term "Isabella" Doberman originated from the French "sable" or from the Latin "sabulosus, sabulum" - these characteristics mean sand (grayish yellow).

Interesting facts about Dobermans

For the first time, the Doberman breed was demonstrated to the public at a dog show in 1876. The show was very successful, the elegant and confident dog gained the favor of German dog breeders. In 1894, Louis Doberman went to another world, taking the secret of crossing the predecessors of the new breed with him to the grave - it is still not known exactly which breeds were taken to obtain the first Dobermans (in addition to those listed above). And despite the problem, German breeders were able to succeed in breeding and improving such a noble breed.

An incredibly ambitious goal was set - to create the perfect dog, suitable for protection and protection.To this end, they selected the most intelligent, angry, hardy and physically strong dogs, moreover, the features of the exterior they were least interested in. But such a policy did not play into the hands of the popularization and commercial success of the breed. At the beginning of the 20th century, notoriety began to spread rapidly about Dobermans - the vast majority of ordinary people (koi ensure the commercial success of the breed) found these dogs incredibly dangerous and aggressive. Accordingly, people preferred to have calmer breeds as pets. The situation was fundamentally changed by the work of Otto Geller - this breeder made the Dobermans kinder (the dogs he displayed turned out to be more harmonious and suitable for life in the family).

German cynologists recognized the Doberman Pinscher as a separate breed in 1900. In 1908, the first specimen was delivered to America to participate in the upcoming dog show. Luck awaited him there - the dog was awarded the Best in Show award, after which the Doberman was presented at 2 more exhibitions in the USA. And success again - 1st place in the "Best in Show". According to legend, only after the solemn presentation of the award at the 3rd exhibition, the judge began to examine the dog’s teeth. In 1921, the American Doberman Pinscher Club was established, and in 1922 this organization adopted the German version of the breed standard.

Pros and Cons of Dobermans

Among dog breeders there are many lovers of this breed, but there are those who, under no pretext, agree to take the Doberman to their home. And in that, and in another case, the choice is argued by the features of the "German aristocrats."

The following characteristics can be considered advantages of the breed:

  • The versatility of the Doberman. The breed is actively involved everywhere, except for the systematic lying on the TV. Doberman is suitable for all types of security spectrum, as well as for all kinds of search and rescue operations. Moreover, European cynologists actively use these dogs in the implementation of social projects (Dobermans are excellent guides for the blind),
  • Devotion to the master. Brave, brave Dobermans always follow the leader - into fire and water. Pay attention - for the leader,
  • The highest intelligence. This breed is rightfully considered the most intelligent, and the statement can not be considered unfounded. In S. Koren’s book, Dog Intelligence, Doberman is included in the breed group with excellent dog training abilities. Therefore, training and service is the best time of life for these noble and elegant dogs,
  • Power, endurance, fortitude. Doberman - this is the real "fighting machine": Hollywood may exaggerate, but here he certainly does not dissemble.

Dobermans also have disadvantages - they need to be familiarized with no less carefully than with advantages, because it is better not to take a dog than bring a Doberman puppy to the house and not cope with his upbringing.

So, the disadvantages of the breed:

  • Doberman is not suitable for everyone. These dogs accept only charismatic, strong people - real leaders. Sluggish, spineless phlegmatic people under no circumstances can not cope with this German servant,
  • Stubbornness and pronounced waywardness. An intelligent and capable Doberman always has his own point of view on everything - only when communicating with someone he recognizes as a leader, he keeps his opinion “to himself”,
  • Dobermans are incredibly pugnacious and aggressive. Actually, this is one of the necessary components of the "police breed",
  • "Dober" cannot imagine their life without systematic physical activity and high, intense, prolonged stress. An unsportsmanlike, soft-bodied homebody will definitely not need a Doberman - but a St. Bernard or a collie will do just fine.

Breeding Dobermans

If you decide to get offspring of these beauties, you will first need to take care of the proper “genetic material”, that is, acquire worthy parents.

How to distinguish a purebred, elite Doberman from bred by dubious breeders and with "marriage"? There are several reliable signs (and, strangely enough, externally, Dobermans that are not suitable for breeding can look very solid and magnificent to carry out complex commands). The unsuitable can be weeded out by wool: in an elite Doberman, it should in no case be soft or wavy. And yet - the presence of white marks in the color is unacceptable.

Interesting fact: Doberman movements should always be light and elastic, running - beautiful and fast. If the dog starts to club up or move around amble, it means that there are problems with the musculoskeletal system.

The distinctive qualities of a Doberman can be both a great advantage and a critical flaw. The pronounced "police" behavior of the dog, his courage and the ability to immediately respond to any threat - these are the main features of the Doberman character. It is they who impose on the dog breeder the obligation to systematically work with the pet to live in a civilian modern society. In any other “situation”, instead of a good friend and an ideal companion, you will get a “headache” and endanger the life and health of your loved ones.

Therefore, before buying a Doberman puppy (there is no question of acquiring an adult), think several times about whether you will have enough time to fully engage in raising a dog? Can you become an undeniable leader for him? If there is even the slightest uncertainty, the Doberman is not for you. Believe me, there are many other breeds that differ in a softer and more accommodating disposition.

And again, remember that the Doberman is the best choice for a strong, charismatic and confident person. Only a true leader will teach the Doberman puppy adequate behavior in modern society and will eventually be able to raise an ideal companion dog, guard, assistant and friend. A weak, lazy and weak-willed owner will turn all the best qualities of this breed into socially dangerous opposites.

And the breeder should have the listed qualities doubly, because he will have to become a leader not for one Doberman, but for a whole flock of these "aristocrats"!

Doberman Care

These "aristocrats" are always very neat, and due to the presence of short hair, caring for them never takes much time. Just imagine: in contrast to the long-haired “mods”, bathing a Doberman is enough only 2-3 times a year. And as a systematic, daily care, it will be quite enough after each trip to the street to wipe the coat and paws of your pet with a wet towel. 1-2 times in 7-10 days, the dog must be combed out with a special, stiff brush.

The dog's claws, ears and teeth require constant care. Claws are very important to trim in a timely manner, and the auricles and oral cavity (mouth) need a systematic examination and cleaning (every week). The change of milk teeth to molars occurs every six months. At this time, it is very important to monitor the condition of the gums, in no case to prevent inflammatory processes. Eyes need to be thoroughly wiped every day with a clean cloth.

Interesting fact: Stopping the tail and ears is another headache for the Doberman owner. Yes, you can get away with this - they have been doing this for a long time in Europe, but you must admit, the Doberman looks much more solid with “standing” ears.

Keeping a Doberman better in a private house - the apartment will be cramped for this active dog. Also with him you need a long time and actively walk. Running, aport team and constant training should be daily activities. For the winter, it makes sense to buy warm clothes for your pet - due to the lack of undercoat for Dobermans “coat” and “panties” - this is not a luxury, but a vital item.

Dobermann diet

Given all the features of the physique and an increased level of activity, Dobermans are absolutely not suitable for everyday food intended for ordinary dogs. It is logical that athletic build and the highest activity require significant energy expenditures.

Accordingly, the diet should include more calories. The above conditions are best suited for a specially selected, full-fledged dry food intended for puppies of large breeds with athletic physique Purina ® PRO PLAN ® Large Puppy Athletic. Adult dogs can use Large Adult Athletic + OPTIBALANCE from the same manufacturer. The proposed food will not only provide the dog’s body with the calories that it needs so much, but also preserve the health of the dentition, joints and contribute to the improvement of digestive processes.

In addition, similar feeds (in composition and quality) are available in the Royal Canin, Hill’s, Acana, etc. lines. They should never be mixed with ordinary food (with any cereals and meat). As a bait for dobermans, it is important to use boiled vegetables and cereals, low-fat pork, low-fat cottage cheese, sea fish and raw eggs.

Important fact: Doberman owners need to carefully monitor the quality of the dog’s nutrition. Because even despite the fact that representatives of this breed are distinguished by a stable digestive system, they often have a stomach twist. This pathology is often found in dogs of large breeds having a wide chest.

Diseases and Health Problems

Dobermans not only look strong, they are really strong and healthy dogs. Up to 6 months of age, Doberman puppies must undergo 3 stages of vaccination. Vaccination is a mandatory procedure, and it is not difficult to perform it (if you do not have the technique of injecting, invite a veterinarian to your home). Also common pathologies are cardiac arrhythmias, large joint dysplasia, osteopathy, and symptomatic epilepsy.

Important fact: Periodically, dogs need to be given calcium, and ground eggshells are not the best option, albeit cheap. Believe me, it is much better (on either side) to give calcium tablets in a course than to take the dog to a veterinary clinic and cleanse the intestines.

Another scourge of Dobermans are ticks, worms and other parasites. Moreover, those dogs that are “urban dwellers” have the likelihood of contracting them, although Dobermans, who walk freely in nature, have a much higher chance of catching parasites. Accordingly, at least every six months, give anthelmintic drugs and periodically look at the hair and exposed areas (auricles primarily) for worms.

Due to increased motor activity, Dobermans are significantly susceptible to injuries of the musculoskeletal system, as well as dangerous cuts and stab wounds in terms of the prospect of infection. But if you systematically show your pet to a veterinarian and follow the recommendations for care given to them, it is likely that your Doberman will safely live up to 14 years or more.

Breed description

Dobermans are strong and at the same time graceful dogs with a proportional and slender physique. Their developed muscles and a wide bone are visible to the naked eye. The latest breed standard was approved in 2015, and all parameters are spelled out very strictly.

So, the Doberman cable by standards should be 68-72 cm high at the withers, the permissible weight is 40-45 kg. The female, of course, is smaller: height - 63-68 cm, weight - 33-35 kg.

The head of the Dobermans is not large, in the form of a wedge with a long narrow muzzle and an undeveloped forehead. Dark small eyes are oval, ears set high.

The chest of Dobermans is developed and round, the back is straight and strong, the stomach is taut. The front legs are located at right angles to the body, the hind legs are slightly set aside.

The Doberman's coat is short and stiff, tight to the skin. There is no undercoat, which is why representatives of this breed are not adapted for life in aviaries. The main color is black or brown with bright rust-colored tints of a certain shape.

- In our country, kupirovanie (cutting) of ears and tails is allowed, which corresponds to the classic type of Doberman, - explains Marina Gorbacheva, owner of Pride of Russia cattery. - In European countries, docking is prohibited, so often now at exhibitions you can see a Doberman with natural tail and ears. The ban on stopping the Doberman is the subject of active discussion and debate among fans of this breed.

How to distinguish a real Doberman from bred with a “marriage”? There are several signs. Firstly, by coat: the Doberman should not be soft or wavy, there should be no white marks in the color and, of course, no undercoat. The Doberman’s movements are light and elastic, the run is beautiful and fast, and the amble, as well as the clubfoot, are considered a vice.

Doberman Hair Care

As a rule, if the Doberman is in good physical shape and is not sick, he does not need special care for his coat. To clean the dog’s hair you will need a brush made of natural hair and a suede rag. Dobermans are weekly cleaned in a circular motion with a brush, both in the direction of growth of the coat and against it. After cleaning, wipe the dog with a slightly damp suede cloth to remove any hair and dandruff. Doberman does not need frequent washing.

Doberman Paw Care

Doberman paws require special care. Paw pads are one of the weakest and most vulnerable places. Therefore, they are subject to a daily inspection to detect cuts, cracks and spikes and spikes stuck in them, thereby preventing the formation of blisters and inflammations. In addition, traces of tar, fuel oil, or similar substances may remain on the paws, which will lead to poisoning if the dog licks them.

Contrary to the belief of many dog ​​breeders that a dog erases its claws on its own - this is not so! Cut nails necessary.

Doberman needs a nail clipper about once a month. Not only can excessively long claws spoil the structure of the paw itself, making it excessively loose and flat, but it can also lead to inflammation of the nail shaft! To trim the claws, you must use a special clipper with a limiter.

It must be remembered that the claw consists of two parts - this is the "living part" in which there are blood vessels with nerve endings and the cornea.

The main thing is to correctly set the clipper limiter and remove only keratinized tissue. In case you accidentally hook a vessel - sprinkle it on paper or a dry cloth of potassium permanganate and attach to the nail. The blood will stop. Having calmed the dog, continue the haircut - the dog should not have associations between clipping claws and pain.

Doberman Ear Care

Examination of the Doberman ears should be done once or twice a week. Use a dry, clean cotton cloth or cotton buds to remove dirt and ear wax. In case of severe contamination, it is necessary to use special oil-based cleaners or treatment and prophylactic drops (Otoferanol, Bars, etc.). The inner surface of the ear must be wiped with a dry rag (bandage), and then carefully remove the accumulation of dirt and sulfur with a cotton swab from the ear canal, introducing the stick only within "visibility" to avoid damage to the eardrum.

Doberman Eye Care

Dobermans require a short but daily eye care. To do this, every morning you need to wipe a piece of gauze with mucus accumulated overnight in the corners of the eyes. In case the discharge is yellow or greenish in color, it is necessary to instill the dog's eyes with ordinary chloramphenicol eye drops. Do not forget that conjunctivitis can be the first sign of a serious illness - the plague!


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