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Wild animals - a natural reservoir of salmonella infection. Text of a scientific article on the specialty - Veterinary sciences


Salmonellosis (Salmonellosis) - anthropozoonous infectious disease, which is most often affected by farm and fur animals and birds. The most characteristic two forms of the disease: acute, in which fever and enteritis are noted, and chronic, which is characterized by joint damage and pneumonia. Diseases are susceptible to young individuals.


The causative agent of the infection is the non-spore bacteria-bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Gram-negative, facultative, mostly motile anaerobes, do not form spores and capsules. They are not able to ferment lactose and sucrose, ferment carbohydrates and alcohols, forming acid or, in some cases, gases. They grow well in warm (temperature 36-38 degrees) alkaline (pH 7.0-7.5) environment. It counts more than 2000 serotypes of Salmonella.

Stable in the environment, at low temperatures do not die. They live in water bodies for up to 4-5 months, in feces for up to 3 years, in milk for 1-3 weeks, in birds' eggs they remain viable for up to 1 year. Resistant to most antibiotics. At high temperatures from 55 degrees, as well as under the influence of ultraviolet radiation they die. To disinfect meat, it is recommended to heat it to 75-80 degrees for at least 10 minutes. Well destroyed by various disinfectants.


The main source of the disease is farm animals: cows, pigs, sheep, horses, fur animals, as well as birds, often rodents are carriers. An ill animal can release the pathogen into the environment for many years. The disease is anthropozoonosis, is ubiquitous, and acquires antibiotic resistance well.

It occurs most often with violations of sanitation and maintenance rules. Transmission routes are different: through feces, urine, milk, saliva, the use of infected meat, eggs or milk. Penetrating into the body the toxins secreted by salmonella damage the intestinal wall, penetrate the circulatory and lymphatic systems, causing degenerative processes in various systems and organs.

Young animals are most sensitive to infection. Calves most often fall ill between the ages of 1-2 weeks to several months, and pigs from the first days of life to weaning from sows. Lambs are most susceptible to disease in the early days of life. Foals get sick between the ages of one week and 3-4 months.

Acute form of salmonellosis

Characteristic features for this form:

  • High temperature (up to 41-42 degrees) of the body, with a low temperature of limbs and ears,
  • Fever,
  • Lethargy,
  • Decreased appetite
  • Soreness in the abdominal cavity, forced posture,
  • Rapid breathing and palpitations, arrhythmia,
  • Conjunctivitis develops,
  • Diarrhea begins, feces acquire a dirty gray color, have a fetid odor,
  • In birds, an additional symptom is an increase in goiter and abdomen,
  • Mortality reaches 50-80%.

The text of the scientific work on the theme "Wild animals - a natural reservoir of salmonella infection"


R.Ya. Gilmutdinov, A.V. Ivanov 1

Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine named after N.E.Bauman, Kazan, [email protected]

Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, Kazan

Salmonellosis is the most common zoonosis in the world, with most of the known salmonella still being regarded as conditionally pathogenic microbes. Being, as a rule, inhabitants of the intestine, they show a pathogenic effect only when the body is weakened, usually causing enteritis and septicemia (Zhdanov, Lvov, 1984). Salmonellosis is not considered a natural focal disease, although its natural foci are not excluded (Tutov, Potapova, 1997). The range of Salmonella host animals in the wild is extremely wide and includes all classes of vertebrates. According to G.P. Kalina (1978), who generalized the data known at that time, the salmonella infection rate for wild animals of different classes can reach: in reptiles - up to 84%, in birds - up to 35%, and in mammals - up to 77%. According to more recent information, salmonella infection in animals in natural biotopes is 9%, more than 2500 serovar serotypes have been isolated from them, and salmonella infection rates can reach: up to 20% in fish, up to 56% in amphibians, and up to 56% in reptiles 84%, in birds - up to 35% and in mammals - up to 77% (Kalina, 1978 and

The lower vertebrates are characterized by the frequency of salmonella secretion. Despite their relatively high infection rate, their role as a natural reservoir is practically not considered in the literature. Often they have no clinical symptoms, and to date, many researchers consider salmonella as a normal microflora of the lower vertebrates, which only under stressful conditions causes dysentery and acute enteritis. So, for “activation” of latent infection in turtles, dehydration is sufficient - after 10-14 days, salmonellosis can be observed. In fish, salmonella is localized mainly in the liver, gills and intestines, in amphibians and reptiles - in the gastrointestinal tract.

intestinal tract. Under natural conditions, fish become infected with contaminated feces of wild birds.

Among reptiles, tortoises are most significant as a reservoir of salmonella infection, although in Vietnam and Panama lizards are of great epidemiological importance. Young turtles are seeded with salmonella by almost 100% and their long carriage is noted - 9-12 months. Even the use of antibiotics does not sanitize the animal organism and is futile (Vasiliev, 2005). In addition, antibiotic resistance is rapidly formed in the isolated Salmonella strains.

Salmonella-salmonella carriage is also relevant for wild warm-blooded vertebrates. Since the mid-1980s, B. caused by (epizootics in songbirds and herons in the USA, Canada, Great Britain, and sparrows in New Zealand (Bakulov, Kotlyarov, 2004) have been observed and it is believed that as a natural reservoir of salmonella birds gulls, waterfowl and passerines) are more significant than mammals (Mote! -, 2001). They are usually asymptomatic carriers of salmonella, and they have virtually no reports of a salmonellosis clinic. Even in the acute course of the disease, death is not always accompanied by significant damage. Possible lethargy, swelling of the eyes, or diarrhea. In young pheasants, for example, in vivo the incubation period of salmonellosis lasts 3-5 days, after which weakness, drowsiness, impaired coordination of movements, intestinal upset, and serous-fibrinous conjunctivitis develop. You can find glued down around the anus, leading to obstruction. Birds die from poisoning by toxins secreted by salmonella. In adults, egg production is lost and yolk peritonitis occurs. The nerve-paralytic form of the disease is accompanied by inflammation of the joints of the wings and legs. In subacute and chronic infections, clinical signs vary greatly and can be expressed by necrotizing pyogranulomatous hepatitis, enteritis, arthritis. Often, infected birds die so quickly that clinical signs do not have time to develop, but the diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory isolation and identification of Salmonella.

Salmonella are isolated from the liver, spleen, and small intestine of birds, and their excretion in captive individuals is much higher than in free-living ones (Chirov, 1984, Reee et al., 2003, etc.). The rare detection of salmonella in their quail eggs is most likely associated not with the high body temperature of these birds (Bessarabov, 2002), but with a very strong shell-shaped shell and the presence of small respiratory openings in the shell, which prevent the penetration of pathogenic bacteria.

Many salmonella serovars with salmonella registration are isolated from mammals. Opossums, raccoons, armadillos are considered as a natural reservoir and potential sources of salmonellosis in domestic animals. In 2000-2002, epizootics were observed among raccoon dogs and brown hares in Northern Europe, rhinos in South Africa, sea lions in Australia (Bakulov, Kotlyarov, 2004). The main clinical signs in this case are fibrinonecrotic enteritis / enterocolitis, septicemia, abortion, however, the picture varies significantly depending on the salmonella serotype and the type of host mammal. At certain stages, salmonellosis is similar to carnivore plague. It is also necessary to differentiate it from parvo-viral gastroenteritis, African swine fever, Escherichiosis, and accompanied by abortion, from brucellosis (Nachmanson and Burba, 1990).

In total, salmonellosis was found in representatives of 9 orders of mammals. Spontaneous infection was found in bats, insectivores — small, medium, common, clawed and arctic shrews, muskrat, common hedgehog, and rabbit-like — hare, hare-

tolai, steppe and Daurian pits, rodents - nutria, gopher, squirrel, muskrat, white rats and mice, carnivores - fenneck, mink, raccoon, ermine, otter, European badger, spotted cat, coyote, spotted geneta, lion, tiger, leopard , striped mongoose, jaguar, maned wolf, bears, pinnipeds - fur seal, artiodactyls - roe deer, spotted and reindeer, elk, mouflon, capricorn, red deer, goral, giraffe, hippo, argali, antelope mendes, saiga, wild boar, elephants , rhinoceroses, primates - capuchin, rhesus monkeys, baboon hamadryl, chimpanzee and other species (Chirov, 1984, Belton, 1997, Mill an et al., 2004, etc.).

Ordinary hedgehogs play a significant role in the transmission of salmonella, but serotypes characteristic of humans are rare. The salmonellosis clinic is characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss, although asymptomatic carriage of infection occurs in about 28% of individuals. Among the artiodactyls, roe deer are susceptible to salmonellosis, although with insufficient hygiene of feeding and keeping, moose and other species, most often young animals, can become ill. In roe deer, salmonellosis is usually manifested by diarrhea with an admixture of blood, fever and general weakness. Pinniped salmonellosis is associated with meningoencephalomyelitis and septicemia (Higgins, 2000, etc.).

There is a high frequency of salmonellosis and salmonellosis in animals of zoos, nurseries and fur farms. In adult kangaroo sick patients, these bacteria could cause sudden death, diarrhea, lethargy, loss of appetite, and pneumonia. Salmonellosis is relatively rare in predatory mammals and is characterized by the presence of hemorrhages in the intestines, although in tigers it is recognized as a veterinary problem and occurs both sporadically and in the form of outbreaks. The source of infection can be both contaminated food and the tiger-asymptomatic carrier of salmonella. Salmonellosis -

make a significant contribution to the structure of intestinal bacterial infections in different species of monkeys and in many zoos take the form of epizootic outbreaks, leading to high mortality). Of the fur-bearing animals, silver-black foxes, arctic foxes, and nutria are the most susceptible to salmonellosis; raccoons, sables, minks, and beavers are the most susceptible (Borisovich, Kirillov, 1987). Among infectious diseases in nutria kept in farm conditions, it has the greatest epizootic value. With the development of industrial nutria breeding, the frequency of salmonellosis in these animals has increased significantly and in recent years has been approximately 4% in the nosological profile of infectious diseases. More often, 1-2-month-old puppies of fur animals are sick, the disease is manifested by an increase in body temperature, conjunctivitis and diarrhea. Pregnant females abort.

In zoos for specific prophylaxis, a multivalent vaccine is used against salmonellosis and colibacillosis of fur animals, as well as other vaccines registered in the Russian Federation.

Bakulov I. A., Kotlyarov V. M. Infectious diseases of wild animals of list A, B and C in the countries of the world (2002-2004) // Diseases of wild animals: proceedings of the Intern. scientific and practical. conf. / VNIIVViM. Pokrov, 2004.S. 4-12.

Bessarabov B.F. Infectious diseases of songbirds and decorative birds // Veterinary clinic. 2002. No. 11. S. 2-5.

Infectious diseases of animals: a guide. / composition. : Yu. F. Borisovich, L.V. Kirillov. Moscow: VO Agropromizdat, 1987.288.

Vasiliev D. B. Veterinary herpetology: lizards. M.: Project F, 2005.480 s.

Zhdanov V.M., Lvov D.K. Evolution of pathogens of infectious diseases. M.: Medicine, 1984. 270 p.

Nakhmanson V.M., Burba L. G Differential diagnosis of infectious diseases of farm animals: a reference book. M.: Ro-sagropromizdat, 1990.255 s.

Tutov I.K., Potapova O. A. Role of wild animals in the conservation and spread of salmonellosis // Bulletin of Veterinary Medicine. 1997. No. 5. S. 55-60.

Chirov P. A. Parasitic arthropods and vertebrates - reservoirs of Salmonellosis pathogens. Frunze: Ilim, 1984. 201 p.

Belton D. Carriage of salmonellae and yersiniae by New Zealand hedgehogs // Surveillance. 1997. v. 24.p. 9-10.

Higgins R. Bacteria and fungi of marine mammals: a review // Canad. Vet. J. 2000. v. 41. N 2.p. 105-116.

Millan J., Aduriz G., Moreno B. et al. Salmonella isolates from wild birds and mammals in the Basque Country (Spain) // Rev. Sci. et techn. / Off. int epi-zoot. 2004. v. 23. N 3. p. 905- 911.

Morner T. Salmonellosis // In: E.Williams, I. Barker (eds.) Infectious diseases of wild mammals. 3rd ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 2001. p. 505507.

Reche M., Jimenez P., Alvarez F. et al. Incidence of salmonellae in captive and wild free-living raptorial birds in Central Spain // J. Vet. Med., Ser. B. 2003. v. 50. N 1. p. 42-44.

Subacute form of salmonellosis

For this form, all the signs of the acute form are characteristic, but they are less pronounced. Diarrhea is periodic, foci of necrosis appear in the intestine, the main symptoms increase over time: temperature rises, discharge from the eyes and nostrils appears, coughing occurs, auscultation can be heard wheezing.

Chronic form of salmonellosis

It is a consequence of an acute or subacute form of the disease. It is characterized by increased symptoms of damage to the respiratory system. Mucopurulent outflows stand out from the nasal cavity and eyes, dry cough is noted, which eventually becomes moist, breathing is difficult, it becomes painful and quickened. During auscultation, wheezing is heard, symptoms of pneumonia develop. Animals become lethargic, lose their appetite, exhaustion occurs. The temperature rises to 41 degrees. After some time, the joints are affected, they swell, become painful, the animal begins to limp. Mortality is high enough, especially if diarrhea appears in the last stage.

In addition to the main symptoms, birds with a chronic and subacute form are characterized by damage to the central nervous system (impaired movement, disorientation, cramps, spontaneous head shaking, etc.).


The diagnosis is made on the basis of epizootological data, clinical examination, pathological data, laboratory tests. It is necessary to send the bodies for autopsy. Of great importance in the diagnosis is the time of the outbreak of the disease and whether it occurs during calving, farrowing, etc.

Diseases from which it is necessary to differentiate salmonellosis:

  • Dyspepsia,
  • Colibacillosis,
  • Diplococcal infections.

The remaining animals have various gastroenterocolitis.


Sick animals must be isolated. The most common treatment regimen is antibiotic therapy and the use of sulfa drugs. But you need to carefully choose antibiotics, because the bacterium becomes resistant. Polyvalent antitoxic anti-salmonellosis serum is also often used.To alleviate the general condition of the animal, symptomatic treatment is necessary: ​​antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant drugs, antispasmodics, absorbing agents, novocaine blockade of diseased joints, with severe depletion of drip infusions.

Control Measures and Prevention

Non-specific methods of prevention include compliance with the rules of sanitation and animal welfare, feeding rules, timely disinfection of premises, the study of feed for salmonellosis. In the event of an outbreak, immunization of animals and the use of monovaccines. Animals are isolated, examined, treated. The farm is disinfected, measures are taken to destroy rodents and a month later it is put into operation.

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