|Difficulty of leaving|
The plant is native to West Africa.
ON THE PICTURE:In nature, Ficus lyre grows in the flat tropical rainforests. Photo by: @lush_forest.
Plant size and type:
Ficus lyre-shaped (Ficus lyrata) - a banyan tree. As a rule, he begins his life as an epiphyte in the crown of another tree, then lowers down to the ground his roots, which braid the trunk of the host tree, slowly strangling him. It can also grow as a stand-alone tree, reaching a height of 12-15 m.
ON THE PICTURE:Indoors, the height of the plant does not exceed 90–300 cm. Photo by: @chairmyplants.
The trunk, as a rule, is one, not branching. You can force it to branch by cutting off the top.
ON THE PICTURE:Lyric ficus can be made to branch. AUTHOR PHOTO: @sembramos.
Leaves of variable shape, but most often with a wide top and a narrow middle, look like a lyre or a violin. The length of each sheet can reach 45 cm, width 30 cm, although usually less. In Ficus, growing indoors, the leaf length does not exceed 38 cm, and the width is 22 cm.
ON THE PICTURE:The leaves of this species of Ficus are leathery, with distinct veins and wavy edges. Photo by: @albermaker.
In the room, the plant does not bloom and does not bear fruit.
The fruit is a green fig with a diameter of 3 cm.
Lyric ficus is often grown as a houseplant. In regions with a tropical and subtropical climate, this plant can be grown in the garden.
The plant is thermophilic, even in winter the temperature should not fall below + 16 ° C. In warm and humid conditions it is necessary to provide good ventilation.
ON THE PICTURE:In the warm season, the ficus lyre-shaped pot is best kept outdoors in a well-lit place, but without direct sunlight, which can lead to burns of leaves.
This species needs bright, but indirect light all year round. Each week, the Ficus pot needs to be rotated 90 ° so that the sun illuminates it evenly from all sides and the plant does not lean towards the light.
In the garden for planting Ficus lyre, choose a site so that the sun shines on the plant for at least six hours a day. This species will grow relatively quickly in full sun or in a partially shaded place.
During the period of active growth, Ficus is watered quite often, but stagnation of water in the pot should not be allowed, the soil between the irrigations should dry out a little. The drooping yellowed lower leaves are a sign of waterlogging. The plant prefers moist air, so it is useful to put the pot in wet peat. To increase humidity, you should also often spray the plant and periodically wipe the leaves with a damp sponge. During the dormant period, watering is moderate. Warm soft water should be used for watering.
When grown in the garden, the plant is watered from spring to autumn, when the tree actively grows new leaves and lengthens shoots. The soil around the trunk needs to be mulched, mulch helps to retain moisture, reduces the number of weeds, regulates the temperature of the soil and, when decomposed, gives plant roots nutrients.
During the period of active growth, it is recommended to feed Ficus with liquid fertilizer every two weeks. The plant is sensitive to a large number of salts in the soil, so the substrate needs to be washed from time to time to prevent the accumulation of salts.
When grown in the garden in spring and mid-summer, fertilizer must be applied with a slow release of nutrients.
For planting Ficus lyre need to use a mixture based on fertile soil. You should not plant it in an oversized pot, this plant loves its roots to grow in cramped conditions. Ficus should be transplanted into the pot one size larger only if necessary, as indicated by the appearance of a large number of roots in the drainage holes, as well as a network of small roots on the soil surface. A transplant is best done in the spring. After the plant is transplanted to the most convenient size of the pot, in the spring instead of transplanting, the topsoil should be replaced with a fresh one every spring.
In the garden, the plant is planted in well-drained fertile soil, which should be moist even in the warm season.
In order to control the height of the tree, it is grown in a tight container and the tops of young shoots are cut. Pruning is best done at the end of winter before the appearance of new leaves. Trimming the top of the trunk stimulates the branching of Ficus and allows you to simultaneously control the size and shape of the crown of the plant. When circumcised, a slightly toxic milky juice is released, which, if it comes into contact with the skin, can cause irritation, so care must be taken during the procedure.
Diseases and pests:
Lyric ficus can be attacked by a red spider mite, scale insects and mealybugs. A spider web between branches and leaves indicates damage by a spider mite. This pest feels good in hot, dry air, daily spraying will help to cope with the invasion of the tick. Heavily affected leaves and shoots should be cut and treated with a suitable preparation. After three days and again after ten days, the treatment must be repeated. If the ticks do not disappear, you need to try another drug.
To combat scabies and mealybugs, mix a little mild dishwashing detergent with water and spray the infected plant. The soapy solution will cover the insects and they will suffocate. After that, the plant must be washed with clean water so that the pores on the leaves are open and can breathe.
Ficus is sensitive to various leaf spots and fungal diseases, which are usually caused by a lack of fresh air and moisture on the leaves. To prevent these diseases, you need to cut off dead leaves and branches in time.
Stains on the leaves can also be caused by mechanical damage. Ficus lyre contains caustic juice, which under the influence of air forms brown spots on the leaves.
Sudden dropping of leaves can be caused by too dry air, insufficient watering or exposure to direct sunlight.
Ficus lyrenum cuttings, as a rule, take root slowly, because due to the large size of the leaves they lose a lot of moisture. Another possible method of reproduction is by air layering, but it requires a lot of time and effort.
ON THE PICTURE:The rooted stalk of Ficus lyreum. Photo by @love_for_cuttings.
This species of ficus got its name for the shape of its leaves. They resemble a lyre. Some compare the leaves with a violin, so the name ficus treble can be found. For their extravagant appearance, the plant is loved by flower growers.
The plant belongs to the mulberry family, and tropical Africa is considered its homeland. In the wild, lyre-shaped ficus reaches a height of 30 m.
Ficuses grown under decorative conditions have the following characteristics:
- It is an evergreen plant, reaches a height of 2.5 m,
- The trunk is weakly branched, straight, gray-brown in color, with a rough surface,
- Large leaves, up to 45 cm, have a rich green color, leathery, shiny with wavy edges, veins are clearly visible in the center, which leaves the leaves even more like stringed musical instruments,
- The leaves on the trunk are arranged in a spiral, have small petioles,
- Wild ficuses grow small round fruits of green shades,
- It requires a lot of moisture and light, does not like temperature changes.
Varieties of lyre-shaped ficus with photo
Popular plant varieties of ficus lyrate include:
"Columnaris" - grows tall, up to 2.5 m, columnar, often used in winter gardens and public places,
"Little Fiddle" is a mid-sized ficus, often found in office interiors,
"Bambino" - a small-growing plant, small leaves form a small crown, ideal for home conditions.
In what conditions to grow
Lyre-shaped ficus looks good at home and is loved by flower growers, however it is rather moody. In adverse conditions, the plant discards foliage, which will affect its appearance.
For the full development of the plant, he needs conditions close to his natural habitat. He needs to provide optimal:
- Temperature condition
- Air humidity,
- Soil composition.
Since lyre-shaped ficus is a tropical plant, the temperature regime for it should be appropriate. In the warm season it is 20-25 ° C, in winter 15-20 ° C.
The plant is very afraid of temperature extremes. Under such conditions, red-brown spots may appear on the leaves. Soil temperature also needs to be paid attention to. It should not be cold.
When the flower is in the winter on a cold windowsill, the pot should be wrapped, and under it put a stand. During the ventilation of the room, make sure that the ficus is not in the draft.
Room temperature in winter should be at least 12 ° C. In conditions of low temperature, watering the plants is minimized.
For ficus, the humidity of the room is no less important. It should be higher than usual. This can be achieved by the following procedures:
- Humidification with special humidifiers,
- Rubbing the leaves with a damp sponge,
- Constant spraying
- Periodic showers, especially during hot periods,
- Installing a container of water next to it.
It is not advised to put a flowerpot with a plant next to the battery.
Like all tropical plants, lyre-shaped ficus loves light. Choosing a place for it should be with good natural light, but without direct sunlight.
A good option would be a room with windows to the west or east. On the north side, there will be too little light, and on the south, sun rays can cause burns. In winter, you can additionally highlight the flower.
For ficus, fertile soil with a neutral acidity level is preferred. The soil mixture can be bought already prepared or prepared by yourself. The following ingredients are used for this:
- 1 part of leaf land,
- 1 part of turf land
- ½ part perlite or river sand with the addition of a small amount of charcoal.
Before planting or transplanting, such a soil is important to calcine, to destroy all harmful bacteria.
With improper watering, the plant can be completely ruined. The number of irrigations should depend on the condition of the soil, air temperature and room humidity.
Before the irrigation procedure, make sure that the soil has dried out from the previous procedure. As a rule, in the summer, watering is carried out several times a week, in winter 1 time per week is enough.
For irrigation, settled water of room temperature is used. When overfilling, excess moisture is removed from the pan.
For the proper development of ficus, nutrient dressing is required, which includes the following elements:
- Nitrogen - it provides good growth and nourishes foliage,
- Phosphorus - develops the root system,
- Potassium - maintains water balance and helps in pest control,
For convenience and time saving, you can use ready-made mineral fertilizers. You can buy them in specialized departments in liquid form or in the form of granules.
When the ficus grows well, the pot may become small. In this case, the plant should be transplanted into a more spacious container.
A young plant is transplanted every year. It is best to do this in the spring, when the plant is just beginning to move away from winter recreation.
Ficus at the age of 4-5 years can be transplanted a little less often, 1 time in 2-3 years. You can determine the need for transplantation by the roots. If they begin to stick out of the drainage holes in the bottom, then it is worth considering a transplant. When choosing a new pot, it is important to choose its size correctly. Compared to the previous one, it should be 2-3 cm higher and wider.
The transplant process should be as accurate as possible.
- Pour a drainage layer at the bottom of the pot, approximately 1/3 of the container,
- Pour a small layer of river sand on the drainage,
- Transfer the earthen lump into a new pot,
- The rest of the empty space is filled with new earth.
Lyre-shaped ficus, like many other plants, can be propagated in several ways.
- The seeds
- Air layering
Lyre-shaped ficus is an elegant addition to the interior, adding a tropical “zest”. If you follow all the rules and features for caring for it, then the plant will grow and delight for a long time.
The miniature Bambino grows no more than 25 cm, and the maximum leaf length is 15 cm. Ficus is very compact, ideal for indoor breeding and even (unlike his tall relatives) pleases the owners with flowering and fruits resembling hazelnuts, which look very original.
Fertilizing is carried out when the plant is active - from March to September.
Do it twice a month.
Sometimes the schedule may be violated due to “objective circumstances” - cloudy weather or too high air temperature in the room.
This time is not favorable for feeding.
As fertilizers, mixtures designed for decorative deciduous crops are acquired, while the concentration is made half as weak as recommended in the instructions.
Ficus has generally a difficult relationship with chemistry: if a drop of a solution falls onto a leaf during feeding, it must be quickly removed so as not to burn it.
Ficus lyre: home care
The representative of the Mulberry family is an evergreen tree. But it differs from many representatives of its species in that in the wild it often begins to exist in the form of an epiphyte attached to the crown of a tree.
If you decide to purchase this beauty, it is worth considering that the ficus lyre-shaped (lat. Ficus lyrata) requires special conditions. Otherwise, the crown will fall, and it will stop growing.
What should be the humidity
Compared with most ficuses, lyre-shaped can tolerate a dry microclimate of the room. Based on this fact, it is necessary to clean the leaves of the plant from dust with a dry cloth and in no case apply special compounds for shine.
Important: if you have pets, then try to put the flower out of their reach. The leaves are saturated with milky juice, which can provoke poisoning of the animal. It is also harmful to humans, because if it enters the epithelium, irritation may occur.
Given the fact that ficus belongs to tropical plants, it is quite thermophilic, however, when the heat is above 35 degrees, it stops the vegetation.
The minimum temperature at which normal flower vital activity is possible is 15 ° C.If the indicator drops to 12, then the period of stay in such a microclimate should be minimized.
Optimum temperature criteria:
- daytime - from 25 to 30 degrees,
- night - 18 ° C.
What soil does he like
The earthen mixture in which ficus grows is of no small importance. The best option is mixed soil, where certain ratios of components should be observed: 3 parts of turf, 1 - peat and 1 coarse sand, which can be replaced with perlite.
Important: Be sure to sterilize the ground before planting. This is done in a steam bath for an hour and a half with minimal fire.
When applying top dressing, one should be extremely careful - substances should not get on the leaves. Otherwise, the flower will burn. If an incident does occur, immediately flush the fertilizer from the surface with water. Performing procedures is not recommended in cloudy weather or at too high temperatures.
If the conditions of the flower are close to optimal, then it is recommended to fertilize twice a month with the same interval. In other cases, the number of top dressings is reduced by 2 times.
The choice of the drug should be stopped on a complex fertilizer for deciduous plants, reducing the recommended concentration according to the instructions by 50 percent.
How to deal with pests
It is not always possible to avoid the appearance of insects on indoor green pets. In small quantities, they are not so scary, however, with their active reproduction, there is a risk of the spread of the fungus, which leads to the inevitable death of the flower.
The appearance of such pests is possible: scale insects, aphids, spider mites, nematodes, worms and thrips. To display each, you must follow the instructions.
The appearance of brown convex spots on the “wrong” side of the leaves is the first signal of the presence of scale insects. If measures are not taken in time, then the trunk will soon be damaged in the plant. In this case, it is necessary to rinse each sheet with water and soap dissolved in it, and then walk with Actellik. Perform the procedure once every seven days for three weeks.
With a mealybug, which can be seen in the photo, the flower must be sprayed a couple of times with confidor with an interval of ten days. This pest can be identified if the leaves undergo deformation and inhibit growth. You should also wash the green mass with soap or tobacco solution every week.
Tip: basically the worm is settled in the axils of the leaves, so treat these places with special care.
Thrips are small-sized insects painted black. Mostly they occupy the back of the sheet. In this case, they are sprayed with Actellic, Tanrek or Actara. A pyrethrum solution is also applicable.
When a spider mite appears, an insecticide should be applied to the plant and cover the ground part with polyethylene. You can replace the drug with the infusion of garlic.
If aphid has appeared, then the surface of the leaves is covered with a sticky layer. Such pest secretions attract other parasites, and the flower quickly dies. In this case, it is necessary to treat the greens with a soap solution and an insecticide.
Nematodes, unlike other insects, spread in the soil and damage the root system of the ficus. It looks like small growths. To solve the problem, you should carefully remove the flower from the soil mixture and place it in the insecticide solution for a couple of hours, after which it will be transplanted into a new soil.
How to crop and shape a crown
Pruning a plant should only form a bush if necessary. This is mainly done if you need to slow down the growth of large specimens a little.
The cut itself should be located in the internode. But it is worth being careful, because during the procedure, juice begins to stand out actively. It can damage not only the skin of the hands, but also the leaves themselves. After drying, it will be impossible to remove from the surface of the flower. Therefore, make manipulations in latex gloves and wipe the “wound” with a cloth.
Tip: if a decent amount of aerial roots has formed, then trim should be done as necessary.
How to propagate ficus
There are several ways to reproduce. The first is vegetative. Compared to other methods, it is considered the most time-consuming.
- Locate the shoot on the plant at least 15 centimeters in length (maximum size 25 cm). Remove everything from it except a couple of leaves and a growth bud. The exposed area should be approximately 10 centimeters.
- In the sinus area of the knot near the left green, make a notch with a sharp tool. Depth depends on the thickness of the barrel - for a diameter of 4 cm it is enough to cut through 5 mm, with a larger notch is made deeper. It is important that the integumentary tissue is damaged. Use only sterile devices.
- Rinse the “wound” with boiled and cooled water, and then apply any root preparation (root, heteroauxin, etc.).
- Wrap the cut with moss. Preference should be given to sphagnum, which is pre-soaked and is wrung out of excess moisture before being applied to the barrel.
- Seal the top with dark polyethylene and wrap with wire at the ends. If air gets inside, the moss will dry quickly and you will not get the desired result.
- After a while, depending on the conditions inside, a root system forms under the packet. After that, the shoot is trimmed a little lower and the stalk is transplanted into a suitable earth composition.
Important: the first few weeks, try to take care of the newcomer as carefully as possible and provide all the necessary conditions so that the ficus can take root.
The second way that an evergreen tree can propagate is by using seeds. Here it is necessary to take into account the photophilousness of the plant, planting material should only be slightly pressed into the ground.
You can propagate the flower by simply cutting off part of the stem with leaves, which is then placed in a glass with water. Then it remains to wait for the formation of roots and send the tenant into a pot of soil. For faster results, a rooting agent is added to the liquid.
To learn more about the processes of increasing the number of ficus, see the video provided to your attention.
Like every flower, this representative of the Mulberry family has a number of diseases to which he is most prone. And if necessary, to cope with the disease, you need to understand the nature of the disease.
- If the leaves began to curl, you should examine the ficus for pests. Since there were none, the problem is a violation of the rules of detention. It is worth analyzing the situation and, having determined what you did wrong, change the approach.
- If the plant stops growing, the problem does not always lie in any disease, it can very well be triggered by natural processes. Adults grow much more slowly. If the specimen is still young, but the leaves began to fall off en masse, and the development stopped still occurred, then this is due to a change in climatic conditions - mainly due to an error in the fluid intake and the wrong humidity level. This is the most common cause of this problem. In this case, you should adjust the watering regime and normalize the humidity by periodically spraying greens with a spray gun.
- Leaf fall is caused, in addition to a lack of moisture, also a lack of light for a flower. In this case, the foliage will crumble from the dark side. But for a long time in the sun to keep ficus is not worth it. It is necessary to find a balance in the lighting and ensure its uniformity.
- If the crown has ceased to please with beautiful large leaves, and small ones appear to replace it, then it is not worth panic. This is another reaction to external factors - adaptation. If you have a flower at home for a long time, but deformation occurs, you should normalize the microclimate and feed the plant.
So that your flower does not cease to please the eye with beautiful bright leaves, you need to pay close attention to it and provide proper care. Do not forget that these are the same pets as animals. And they will do justice if you take care in a timely manner.
Cropping, crown shaping
Crowns are formed in early spring, when the plant is in an active state. During the rest period (from October to January) he is not disturbed. Pruning has a beneficial effect on the appearance of the plant - it begins to bush. For example, this video shows how the ficus lirate has grown after pruning:
Even a bare tree can be put in order by removing its top and allowing the shoots to develop from the side buds. With the help of an elastic band or thin wire, you can even set the branches in the desired direction, and then, having achieved the desired result, remove them.
Diseases and Pests
Most plant diseases are due to errors in care:
- the leaves curl, acquire a brown hue - the ficus was exposed to direct sunlight, it was watered incorrectly,
- the lower leaves are crumbling - there is not enough light, watering is too rare,
- growth has slowed - there are few nutrients in the soil or salinization has occurred,
- the leaves began to turn yellow and droop - watering is too plentiful, the liquid accumulates in a pan or pot.
By the way, excess moisture can also cause the development of a fungal infection. The plant will “report” this problem with dark scratches and stains on the leaf blade.
Of the pests, the danger to the lyre-shaped ficus is represented by the mealybug (stems and roots suffer from it, and the plant is covered with dark spots) and the spider mite (it sucks juice from the leaves, braids with cobwebs). Treat a green pet with insecticides.
1. Ficus Lirata Home Care: Location
It is always worth remembering that ficus lyrate in nature grows in the rainforest. So, at home he needs conditions similar to the nature of the rainforest. Hence the conclusion: ficus lirata loves light, but does not like direct sunlight and agrees to a slight shading. It should be noted that the ficus will be drawn to the light, so you need to periodically deploy it so that it is even.
8. Brown spots on the leaves
Another consequence of improper care of ficus is the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. So ficus reacts to too rare or too frequent watering. Make watering sufficient and regular and make sure that the soil has time to dry.
9. What to look for when buying?
Choose a healthy plant in the store. Its main feature is elastic leaves, tending upward, but not excessively, and evenly distributed throughout the plant. Inspect the leaves below for pests or diseases. The roots of the plant should not be above the surface.
Lyre-shaped ficus is in demand for home gardening due to its unusual leaves. But he is moody: from unfavorable factors for it, the ficus discards the leaves and from this its decorative effect is lost.
Therefore, the flower needs comfortable, close to natural, conditions for growth, which depend on:
- the right temperature for its contents,
- room humidity
- the soil.
Since the flower is a tropical inhabitant, the temperature for its cultivation should fluctuate:
- in the summer - from 20 to 25 degrees,
- in winter - from 15 to 20 degrees.
Ficus is poorly related to rapid temperature changes - red-brown spotting appears on the foliage. The soil in the pot should also not be cold.
In winter, if the flower is on the windowsill, you need to put a stand under the flowerpot, and wrap the flowerpot with something. When ventilating the room, you need to ensure that the ficus is not in a draft.