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Frankincense (Bergenia crassifolia)

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Badian thick-leaved, or Saxifrage thick-leaved, or Mongolian tea (lat Bergénia crassifólia) - perennial herbaceous plants, a typical species of the genus Badan (Bergenia) of the family Saxifragaceae.

Description.

Perennial herbaceous plant of the Saxifragaceae family. It has a thick (up to 3.5 cm in diameter), fleshy, cylindrical, creeping rhizome more than a meter long. A powerful vertical root departs from the rhizome.

The stems are leafless leafless, up to 50 cm high. The leaves are long-leaved, leathery, shiny, rounded or widely elliptical, whole, wintering, collected in a basal rosette. The lower part of the leaf is covered with point glands.

The flowers are bell-shaped, with reddish or lilac-pink petals, in dense apical panicle-corymbose inflorescences. It blooms in May - June. Flowering duration up to 50 days. Ripening begins in July. The fruit is a box with two blades and numerous seeds. Seeds are smooth, up to 2 mm long.

Common badan is common in Siberia, Primorye, Kazakhstan, China, Korea, and northern Mongolia. It grows on rocky slopes, rocks, placers, in sparse coniferous and deciduous forests, along river valleys. It forms dense thickets in places protected from the wind with significant snow cover in winter. Propagated mainly by seeds.

Collection and Harvesting

For medicinal purposes, rhizomes (less often leaves) of frankincense are harvested. Harvesting is carried out in July - August. Rhizomes are dug up (it is necessary to leave 15-20% of plants), they are cleaned of soil and small roots, washed, cut into pieces about 15-20 cm long. Thick rhizomes are cut lengthwise.

First, spread out in a thin layer and dry in the sun, then air-dried. The drying period is approximately 3 weeks. In dryers can be dried at t no more than 45 ° C. Dried raw materials are odorless, taste is astringent. Shelf life of raw materials is 4 years.

Botanical characteristic of a frankincense

Badan - Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch is a perennial herbaceous winter-green plant from the family Saxifragaceae with a long thick creeping branched rhizome. The leaves are collected in a thick rosette, have rather long petioles and leathery widely elliptic or almost rounded plates with a length of 1–20 cm and a width of 9–17 cm, with large blunt teeth along the edges. The leaves are fleshy, dark green, reddening in the fall, but not dying off - they leave alive under the snow, in the spring they continue to function. Leafless flower-bearing stems are thick, end with paniculate inflorescence, have a height of 15-50 cm.
Incense flowers with a double 5-membered perianth. Calyx is green, bell-shaped, half cut into 5 parts. Corolla of 5 lilac-pink petals 10-12 mm long and 6-8 mm wide. Stamens 10. Pestle with a semi-low ovary, 2 columns and kidney-shaped stigmas. It blooms in May - July. The fruits ripen in July - August. The fruit is an ellipsoidal 2-nested capsule with numerous dark brown or almost black seeds. In one inflorescence (in other words, on one flower-bearing shoot), up to 250 viable seeds are formed.
Despite the abundant fruiting and dispersal of a huge number of seeds with high germination, the frangipani propagates mainly in the vegetative way, using rhizomes.
Badan is a winter-green plant. This means that its leaves do not die off in the fall, but leave for the winter, keeping the photosynthetic apparatus intact. In the spring, immediately after leaving the snow cover, they resume their activity, and die only 2-3 weeks after the flowering of the plant, when young leaves of a new generation begin to appear. In Buryatia, the local population call such overwintered leaves "black." It is believed that they are more healing than young.

The spread of frankincense

Sweet Badan - an Asian plant. It is found in Russia in the mountains of southern Siberia. It is especially widespread in the mountains of the Baikal region, in the Western Sayan and in Altai.
Badan is a real mountain plant, spread at an altitude of 600 to 2,700 m above sea level within the forest, subalpine and alpine zones. Its largest thickets are noted at heights from 1,000 to 1,700 m. It grows mainly on stony-gravelly substrate in forest and shrub communities: dark coniferous and mixed forests, light forests, subalpine shrub-moss and taiga green-shrub associations. It is common on screes, stony placers, rocks, in the valleys of mountain rivers and streams. In places it forms continuous thickets, while the leaves completely cover the surface of the soil.

Economic use of frankincense

Rhizomes and leaves of incense are rich in tannins, therefore, serve as raw materials for the production of high quality tannic extracts. These extracts are suitable for tanning any kind of skin, but are especially appreciated when dressing plantar skin. As a tannin, frankincense is even grown on plantations.
A tarpaulin and fishing nets were soaked with extract from the rhizomes of badan, which extended their service life by 1.5-2 times. This extract has the glory of a persistent dye in black and brown tones. It has incense and nutritional value. Buryats, Mongols, Russian Siberians use as a substitute for tea the overwintered leaves of the frankincense, which are called "black". In the hunger years, rhizomes rich in starch were used for food. True, they need to be soaked for a long time to get rid of at least part of the tannins, which give the rhizomes a bitter taste.
The incense is quite decorative. It has long been cultivated in flower beds.

Features of harvesting frankincense

Rhizomes of incense are only slightly submerged in the soil, most of them are located on the surface. This greatly simplifies the procurement of raw materials. Rhizomes are easily torn out by hand, the need for using a trench tool usually does not arise. Since the main therapeutic effect is provided by tannins, and their content remains high throughout the year, raw materials can be prepared all year round. In fact, harvesting is carried out in the warm period - in summer and autumn. Rhizomes are cleaned of roots and particles of soil, sand, small pebbles adhering to them and then dried. Unlike rhizomes, incense leaves are harvested only in spring and early summer before flowering plants or in late autumn. In the first case, overwintered leaves serve as raw materials, in the second - leaves of the current year, but not young.
When harvesting the rhizomes of badan, it should be remembered that the restoration of plants occurs only after 20-50 years. Therefore, when harvesting, it is necessary to leave at least 25% of full-fledged plants for propagation, and re-harvest at the same place after 20-25 years. Leaves from one plant can be collected with a frequency of 3-5 years.

Medicinal value of frankincense and methods of therapeutic use

Medicinal value in a bergenia have rhizomes and leaves. They contain tannins, phenol glycoside arbutin, resins, essential oil. In overwintered leaves, up to 27% of tannins, more than 19% of arbutin, 1-2% of flavonoids were found.
Medicines from badan have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, astringent, hemostatic effect. They lower blood pressure, accelerate the heart rate, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improve the general condition of the body, increase the physical performance of a person. There is experimental data on the antitumor and anti-radiation properties of badan — alcohol extracts from rhizomes and leaves inhibited the growth of tumors by 40-50% and contributed to the survival of irradiated laboratory animals.
A galenic preparation with anticancer activity was isolated from the leaves and rhizomes of badan.
In recent years, a dry extract has been made from overwintered (“black”) leaves of the plant, which has adaptogenic, immunostimulating, anti-stress, and antibacterial properties. The healing effect is determined by the flavonoids, arbutin, tannins, phenolcarboxylic acids contained in the extract.
In medicine, they mainly use astringent properties of frankincense - decoction of it is prescribed inside for diarrhea of ​​various origins, including dysentery and enterocolitis. It is even more widely used as an external agent: rinse your mouth with inflammation of the oral cavity or gums, do douching with erosion of the cervix, etc. In gynecology, uterine bleeding is stopped with the medicine from badan, normalize heavy periods, treat inflammation of the genital organs, fibromas.
At home, most often they make a liquid extract or a decoction of raw incense.
To prepare the extract, 3 tablespoons of the crushed raw material is poured with 1 glass of boiling water and boiled until half of the liquid is evaporated. The remaining liquid is filtered off from the residual raw materials and taken orally 25-30 drops 2-3 times a day.

For douching, it is recommended to use a solution of 1 tablespoon of liquid extract of frankincense in 1 liter of warm boiled water or a decoction of the rhizomes of the plant. Douching is done daily for 2-3 weeks.

One tablespoon of chopped rhizomes is poured with 1 glass of boiling water, boiled over low heat for 30 minutes, cooled at room temperature for 10 minutes, filtered, squeezed. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day before meals with heavy menstruation, bleeding after a miscarriage, erosion of the cervix and leucorrhoea.

For colitis, enterocolitis and other non-infectious gastrointestinal disorders, take a decoction of 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.

Tibetan medicine uses incense for pulmonary tuberculosis, kidney diseases associated with bruises, joint rheumatism, and gastrointestinal diseases.

Mongolian traditional medicine recommends frankincense for nausea and vomiting.

Folk healers of Siberia use infusions and decoctions of rhizomes as a hemostatic, disinfectant and febrile remedy. The rhizomes themselves can be eaten as an additive to meat, soups and salads. Powder from dry roots sprinkle wounds and ulcers to accelerate their healing.

Folk medicine also widely uses leaves as a good remedy for diarrhea and fever, as well as a substitute for tea. In Altai Mountains, tea from old plant leaves is recommended as a rinse for toothache.

The extract from the leaves has an effect that stimulates the health of the body.
Studies have confirmed that the addition of rhizome powder to barium suspension during fluoroscopy of the colon helps relieve spasms and improve the condition of patients.

With inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and gums, rinsing with a strong decoction is recommended.
Two tablespoons of rhizomes pour 1 cup boiling water, heat in a water bath for 30 minutes., Insist 4 hours, strain. Take 2 tablespoons 3 times a day after meals. At the same time, the infusion is used to rinse before and after meals.

With joint rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis, folk medicine recommends a decoction of the roots: Pour 1 tablespoon of boiled water in one tablespoon of the crushed roots, boil over low heat for 20 minutes, insist for 30 minutes, strain. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day.

Badan tea
A few leaves of the plant are poured with boiling water, insist 30 minutes., Filter. Drink instead of water. The brewing dose is not limited; honey or sugar is added to the tea to taste. Badan tea is considered an excellent thirst-quenching drink that has a general strengthening effect.
According to Cedir, the incense is ruled by Saturn, the ruling planet in Capricorn and Aquarius.

Billet

For therapeutic purposes, rhizomes are used (lat. Rhizoma bergeniae ), which are harvested in June - July. Collected by hand, cleaned from the ground and washed in cold running water. Large rhizomes are cut into long pieces. After preliminary drying, they are dried in the shade or in well-ventilated rooms, laying out in a layer of 5 cm on paper or fabric. Leaves are much less commonly used.

Chemical composition

The rhizomes contain 15–27%, and the leaves contain 13–23% tannins, which mainly belong to the group of gallotannins, the content of tannin in which ranges from 8 to 10%. The arbutin content in the leaves reaches 22%, and free hydroquinone - 4%, gallic and ellagic acids are also present. With age, the content of tannins in rhizomes increases, and in leaves it decreases. Rhizomes contain isocoumarin bergenin. By the content of arbutin, frankincense is the richest plant source.

Meaning and Application

As an ornamental plant used for landscaping, in stone gardens, massifs of shrubs and trees. Gardeners brought forth several forms with flowers of various colors. The plant prefers penumbra and shady places with moderately dry, fertile soil. Propagated by dividing the bush in the fall.

The plant is in the front row of the world's tanning agents (the tanid content is 2 times that of the willow or spruce bark, and 4 times that of the oak bark), it is used for tanning soles and yufts, as well as for impregnation of nets and tarpaulin.

Gives black and brown paint.

Rhizomes soaked in water and washed from tannins are used as food, and overwintered leaves are used for aromatic tea - mongolian tea.

Medical use

For medicinal purposes, rhizomes are used, much less often - leaves. The medicinal properties of frankincense have long been used in Russian folk medicine, as well as in medicine in Tibet and China. Water extracts of rhizomes and leaves are used for colitis, tuberculosis, acute and chronic pneumonia, pulmonary hemorrhages, acute respiratory infections, influenza and some other infections, laryngitis, headaches, fevers, joint rheumatism, and gastrointestinal diseases. They are used in gynecological practice for heavy menstruation due to inflammatory processes of the appendages, for hemorrhagic metropathies, uterine fibroids, after childbirth, and bleeding after termination of pregnancy.

Badan is also used for colitis of non-dysenteric nature, with dysentery - in combination with sulfonamides and antibiotics. They are also used in dental practice for lubricating the gums in chronic inflammatory processes in the oral cavity. Compresses with infusion or a decoction of incense are used to heal wounds, ulcers and bruises.

Folk medicine used the leaves of frankincense for the treatment of tuberculosis, pneumonia, rheumatism, gastrointestinal, urinary tract diseases, with goiter, toothache. In Mongolian medicine, frankincense is used for nausea and vomiting.

Taxonomy

View Badan enters the clan Badan ( Bergenia ) Saxifrage family ( Saxifragaceae ) of order Saxifragales ).

Notes

  1. The name Angiosperms is also used.
  2. For the conventions of specifying the class of dicotyledons as a superior taxon for the plant group described in this article, see the APG Systems section of the Dicotyledonous article.
  3. According to the GRIN website (see plant card)
  4. 12345 Badan thick-leaved // Atlas of medicinal plants of the USSR / Ch. ed. Acad. N.V. Tsitsin. - M .: State. publishing house honey. lit., 1962. - S. 60-61.
  5. Blinova K.F. et al.Botanical Pharmacognostic Dictionary: Ref. allowance / Ed. K.F. Blinova, G.P. Yakovleva. - M.: Higher. school, 1990. - S. 169. - ISBN 5-06-000085-0

Literature

  • Genus 705. Badan - Bergenia Moench // Flora of the USSR. 30 t / hl ed. Acad. V. L. Komarov, Volume Editor S. V. Yuzepchuk. - M. - L.: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1939. - T. IX. - S. 137. - 540 + XIX p. - 5200 copies.
  • Dudchenko L.G., Koziakov A.S., Krivenko V.V. Spicy aromatic and spicy flavoring plants. - K.: Naukova Dumka, 1989 .-- S. 18-19. - 100,000 copies. - ISBN 5-12-000483-0
  • Universal Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants / comp. I.N. Putyrsky, V.N.Prokhorov. - M .: Makhaon, 2000 .-- S. 64-65. - 15,000 copies. - ISBN 5-88215-969-5
  • Maznev N.I. Encyclopedia of medicinal plants. - 3rd ed., Rev. and additional .. - M.: Martin, 2004 .-- 496 p. - 10,000 copies. - ISBN 5-8475-0213-3
  • All about medicinal plants in your beds / Ed. Radelova S. Yu. - St. Petersburg: SZKEO LLC, 2010. - P. 193. - 224 p. - ISBN 978-5-9603-0124-4
  • Lavrenov V.K., Lavrenova G.V. Modern encyclopedia of medicinal plants. - M.: CJSC OLMA Media Group, 2009. - S. 36-37. - 272 p. - ISBN 978-5-373-02547-8

How to plant?

Planting of frangipani in open ground is subject to several conditions. The plant feels good in the shade, and in the partial shade, and in bright areas. However, direct exposure to sunlight does not affect it in the best way - the shrub slows down in development and does not achieve possible qualitative results. The same thing happens in absolute shadow. I must say that the incense does not respond well to transplantation, and therefore it is necessary for him to choose a permanent place of residence very carefully.

Experts recommend planting the crop on the northwestern, northern or northeastern side of the rocky embankments. For the winter, the coniferous foliage needs protection from the cold, otherwise its leaves will frostbite and the peduncles will turn black. It is better to combine the soil for the plant from a part of turf and two parts of a mixture of river sanitized sand and small stones. If you still have to use loam, then you need to knead sand and gravel in it.

The grassy plant feels best on light turf or a mixture of three components: sand, humus (which is replaced by compost), as well as loam, taken in equal proportions.

It is important not to forget about the need for neutral acidity. Badan does not respond well to stagnant water, so you should either avoid such areas, or ensure high-quality drainage. At the same place, culture is able to successfully dwell for about 10 years, without experiencing a lack of nutrients. As already mentioned, it reacts poorly to transplants, since this procedure negatively affects the general condition of the plant, and hence the tendency to diseases. In the case when transplantation is indispensable, it should be remembered that after the procedure the leaf plates are not cut.

How to care?

Caring for badass thicket is not too complicated. Irrigation should be regular, but moderate, as the plant reacts poorly to moisture congestion. In the spring, the bush is surely cleared of last year's branches and leaves, and too long shoots are slightly shortened. Top dressing should be carried out both before and after flowering - conventional complex formulations are suitable for this purpose. For example, when the buds bloom after waiting several weeks, it will be appropriate to apply Kemira Combi fertilizer, a tablespoon of which is dissolved in a bucket of water and used for irrigation of 2 square meters.

If the culture lives in the extreme zones of the site, then experts recommend not to release it from falling dry leaves. If you leave them in place, then by itself there will be protection against evaporation of the liquid, which, in turn, will protect the root system from overheating. In that case, when getting rid of old foliage is necessary for the aesthetic component of the landscape, you will have to mulch and do not forget about irrigation. The culture has good winter hardiness, and in autumn, as a rule, only mulching of the root zone using humus is enough. The conifers undergo frosts due to the proximity of trees and shrubs located on the north side.

In the spring after snow melts, all dead, aged or spoiled leaves are removed. The same applies to the "used" peduncles - they are removed immediately after flowering, if there is no need to collect seeds.

Breeding methods

The frankincense multiplies 4 main ways: seeds, cuttings, division and root shoots. However, most often the first method is used, as it is considered the most effective. The second most popular is cuttings - in this case, cuttings are cut from healthy and viable shrubs. As a material for propagation, a piece of the root system is used, which has 3-5 kidneys, as well as a leaf rosette with a couple of three leaves. Their landing is carried out in the sand, which is best placed in a special greenhouse. In depth, the stalk goes only 3-5 cm. In principle, in some situations, you can simply separate a part of the rhizome with a shovel and transplant it to a new place, and fill the cleared area with compost.

If we are talking about seeds, then it is customary to collect them back in September. It is convenient to store the seedlings of thick badass in paper bags signed with the indication of the variety and the date of collection. It is important that the bags are stored at room temperature. In February, the seeds are laid out on clean paper and processed with an electrified glass or ebonite stick, maintaining a height of 1 centimeter. This action is repeated a couple of times with constant mixing of seeds.

The essence of the procedure is to detect empty or damaged samples that stick to the instrument.

In March, you can start growing seedlings. The soil for it should be prepared in advance - in the fall. The mixture is composed of humus and compost, taken in equal amounts, enriched with some components. As a rule, the contents of one bucket must be enriched with a couple of glasses of wood ash, 20 grams of potassium sulfate, and 60 grams of superphosphate. An alternative may be a mixture for greenhouses, sold in specialized stores. Somewhere 2-3 weeks before planting, the mixture is also supplemented with peat or a nutritious mixture for violets.

Seedlings can be grown in either wooden or plastic containers.equipped with holes at the bottom and having low sides. Seeds should first be placed in a solution for better germination. To do this, a tablespoon of ash, a pinch of copper sulfate and a pinch of boric acid are dissolved in a liter of hot water. Seeds are placed in a bag of gauze, after which they are lowered into the resulting liquid all night. In the morning they will need to be dried, and pour soil with a solution of potassium permanganate.

The pits are made simply with a finger, observing an equal gap between the individual recesses and without going deeper than 1 centimeter. The spread seeds are sprinkled with fine sand or soil, after which they are irrigated abundantly. The containers are tightened with cling film and put away in a well-heated place, for example, to the battery. Planting of badass thick-leaved must be watered and aired, and then the shoots will hatch pretty soon. The appearance of the former is accompanied by the removal of the film and the transfer of containers to the light.

The first week of seedlings should remain during the day at temperatures from +13 to +16, and at night from +11 to +13 degrees Celsius. Further, the daytime temperature rises to 20-22 degrees Celsius, and the night temperature to 18-19 degrees. Planting is better not to water, but to spray. When the first leaf appears on the sprouts, you can do the planting of frankincense in separate containers.

Diseases and Pests

One of the advantages of the thick badiana is its high resistance to both insects and diseases. Nevertheless, non-compliance with agricultural conditions leads to spotting. It will be possible to determine the disease by the appearance of clear brown spots, which eventually become more gray. In addition, the lower surface is “covered” with a whitish coating. To cure, it will be enough to cut off the damaged leaves and treat the entire shrub with Bordeaux liquid or “Fundazole”.

How to grow frankincense, see in the next video.

Frankincense

Badan - Bergenia crassifolia.

A perennial herbaceous plant 10-15 cm high. The rhizome is fleshy with numerous root lobes, highly branched, creeping, located near the soil surface, turning into a powerful root deepening into the ground. The stalk is thick, naked, leafless. The leaves are large, bare, leathery, dark green, blushing by autumn, collected in a basal rosette, wintering under the snow. The leaf blade is 3-35 cm long, with a round or heart-shaped base, widely elliptical, with large blunt teeth along the edge, on a wide short petiole. Flowers are collected in a dense apical paniculate-corymbose inflorescence. The calyx is bell-shaped, half-cut into 5 widely elliptical, rounded lobes at the top. Petals of pink color 5, 10-12 cm long. Stamens 10, pistil with a low-low ovary, divided into 2-3 columns with wide kidney-shaped stigmas. The fruit is a box with 2 diverging blades. Seeds are numerous, smooth, oblong, almost black, 1.5-2 mm long.

It blooms in May-July before the appearance of young leaves, the seeds ripen in July-August. It occurs in the mountains of Altai, Kuznetsk Alatau, Sayan, Transbaikalia and South-Western Yakutia, where it grows at an altitude of 400-2500 m on well-drained rocky talus, in cracked cliffs of the subalpine and upper part of the forest belt.

Are used rhizomes and roots harvested in June-July.

Leaves and rhizomes contain tannins (25-27%), mainly belonging to the group of gallotannins with 8-10% tannin content. IN leaves Gallic acid, arbutin (13-22%) and free hydroquinone (2-4%) are also contained. IN rhizomesIn addition to tannins, isocoumarin derivatives - bergenin and glycoside (poorly understood) are contained. With the age of the plant, the content of tannins in the rhizomes increases, in the leaves it decreases.

• macrocells (mg / g) - K - 10.5, Ca - 25.5, Mg - 2.6, Fe – 0,17,

• microelements (μg / g) - Mn 009.16, Cu - 0.38, Zn - 1.3, Co - 0.06, Cr - 0.04, Al - 0.12, Ba - 6.08, V- 0.03, Se - 2.22, Ni - 0.3, Sr - 4.19, Cd - 1,6, Pb - 0.05, B - 58.4,

• concentrate ZnCd, Se, Sr, Ba, especially ba, sr.

IN medicine Badan preparations are used internally for colitis and enterocolitis of non-infectious nature, for rinsing with stomatitis and gingivitis, for the treatment of cervical erosion. The roots and rhizomes of badan have, thanks to the presence of arbutin, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect. The presence of tannin in the incense determines its astringent effect.

It is used as a hemostatic, anti-inflammatory agent for heavy menstruation, uterine fibroids, after childbirth, and for gastrointestinal diseases.

Badan is one of the best leather tanning agents.

Badan Extract extends the life of fishing tackle.

Preparations - liquid extract, decoction, tea (Mongolian or Chigirsky) - an excellent thirst-quencher. From the leaves get natural tannin, gallic acid, black and brown dyes. A method for producing tannic extracts has been developed.

Recipes

  • preparation of tincture: the rhizome of the incense is filled with vodka in a ratio of 1:10. With this tincture, a napkin is moistened and applied to the face in the form of a mask for 15 minutes. Two times per week. For oily skin.
  • cooking broth: a tablespoon of rhizomes is filled with 200 ml of boiling water and heated in a water bath for 30 minutes. Then the broth for 10 minutes. cooled at room temperature.
  • liquid extract of frankincense: take 3 tbsp. tablespoons of crushed root or leaves, pour a glass of boiling water and simmer over low heat until half of the original volume is evaporated. Take 30 drops 2-3 times a day.
  • Badan extract has astringent, anti-inflammatory, diuretic and disinfecting properties.
  • a concoction of incense: take 10 g (1 tablespoon) of the rhizomes of the plant, pour 200 ml of boiling water, put in an enamel bowl and heat in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, then cool at room temperature for 10 minutes, strain. Squeeze the remaining raw materials into the infusion, which is brought to the primary volume with boiled water. Take 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons before meals 3 times a day as an astringent, hemostatic and anti-inflammatory agent for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It is also used for dysentery.
  • infusion of rhizomes (or leaves): take 8 g of crushed raw materials, pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist, strain. Take 1 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day.

Badan lowers blood pressure and increases heart rate.

Cultivation and care

The frankincense belongs to the family Saxifragia. It is a perennial plant from the rocky mountains and alpine meadows of East and Central Asia. It has creeping right on the surface of the earth, strongly branching thick rhizome up to several meters long.

The incense grows very slowly. From the rhizome grow rosettes of numerous, large, rounded and very thick-skinned leaves that persist in the winter. They are collected in a socket that creeps as the rhizome grows and old leaves die off.

Badan is an evergreen plant and therefore beautiful at any time of the year. Even the appearance of brown-green leaves from under the snow, preserving their decorative effect, has a significant effect. A shortened overhead shoot has a dense rosette of leaves at the top.

All its leaves are basal, broadly oval, they have a length of 20 to 30 cm and a width of up to 20 cm. They are located on long wide petioles. The leaf blades are leathery, thick, dark green, shiny. These leaves serve as a wonderful backdrop for flowering plants.

When the incense blooms

Badan blooms in May and July. The flowers are lilac-pink, purple, scarlet, white, bell-shaped, collected in spreading complex inflorescences on thick and high peduncles and decorate plants for a long time.

Badan in the flowering period. Photo: www.botanische-spaziergaenge.at

Peduncles grow and bloom at the same time. During flowering, a shortened shoot extends into a long flower arrow. Sometimes the lower tier of the inflorescence is revealed almost at the level of foliage. But when the last flower in the brush opens, the peduncle reaches a height of up to 60 cm.

One of the first to bloom at the beginning of May, frankincense, corolla and Schmidt, and later varieties of frangipani bloom in June.

After flowering and almost until the end of July, the plants rest, and then they begin the period of growth of the rhizome and laying the buds of new rosettes.

With the first autumn night frosts, the incense begins to change the color of the leaves. In most varieties, the surface of the leaf becomes crimson, raspberry or purple.

Seat selection

But the incense is not only beautiful, but unpretentious. It grows best on light and medium, well-seasoned loams. He loves places protected from the cold north wind.

Badan is frost-resistant, it is not very demanding on heat and light, it grows equally in sunny and completely shaded places, it grows successfully in the most adverse conditions. In damp places and lowlands, badan will be flour, not life.

Badan grows well in the lower part of a rocky hill, on the northern or northwestern slope. This plant tolerates shading, can grow in areas in partial shade, in the sunshine, the leaves of the incense are slightly smaller, which will reduce its decorativeness.

Badan grows well on poor drained soils and even on stones, where a little soil accumulates, but is demanding on the presence of moisture in the soil. He looks excellent on the hillocks and slopes among large stones and boulders.

According to many experts and in the opinion of the author, frankincense is one of the most ornamental plants created by nature. With the unexpected shape and color of its leaves and its inflorescences, it allows you to create picturesque compositions in different corners of your site from early spring to late autumn.

It is best to use badan in rabatka and as a border. It is rarely used for cutting, but it is suitable for spring bouquets, as long stands in the water.

Propaganda

Badan easily tolerates transplantation, propagated by seeds and vegetatively.In amateur gardens, it is often propagated by dividing the bush into Each part should have at least three strong buds, a sufficiently large part of the rhizome with well-developed roots. It is better to divide the plant in the early spring or in August, but it easily transfers the transplant at any time of the year.

When propagated by green cuttings, young spring rosettes with small leaves and part of the rhizome (heel) are taken. Cuttings are harvested immediately after flowering, which ends in early June. Propagation by seeds in the garden is difficult because seedlings develop slowly, for the winter they need to be insulated. And they bloom in the 3-4th year.

The healing properties of frankincense

Badan has pronounced medicinal properties. For medicinal purposes, mainly rhizome is used, and less often - and frankincense leaves.

Harvesting rhizomes is not complicated. They are easily torn out of the soil by hand, cleaned of the earth, damaged parts and small roots, washed with water, cut into long pieces, dried, and then dried in dryers.

The main biological active compounds of frankincense are tannins and arbutin.

Rhizomes contain tannins, isobergenin, catechins, gallic acid. The leaves contain vitamin C, polyphenols, volatile and arbutin glycoside. The plant contains a wide range of micro and macro elements: potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, is able to accumulate zinc, barium, selenium, cadmium and strontium.

Badan in folk medicine

In folk medicine, a variety of medicinal properties are attributed to badan. Its rhizome and leaves have astringent, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Badan infusion is used internally for diarrhea, non-infectious colitis and enterocolitis; they overwhelmingly act on dysentery and Escherichia coli. In addition, frankincense strengthens the walls of the capillaries and has a local vasoconstrictor effect, moderately lowers blood pressureslightly increases the heart rate.

Rhizomes of a badan. Photo: travnick-altay.com

Externally, infusions, decoctions and extracts of frankincense are used in dentistry for chronic inflammation of the oral cavity, for lubricating the gums, for compresses with articular rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis.

Powder from the roots and rhizomes of a frankincense is used to treat wounds and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

A decoction of incense

To prepare a decoction of incense for domestic consumption, you need 1 tbsp. spoon chopped rhizomes pour 1 cup boiling water and boil in a water bath with the lid closed for 30 minutes. Then cool, strain and add cold boiled water to 1 cup.

Take a decoction of incense for 2 tbsp. tablespoons before meals once a day with colitis and enterocolitis, as an astringent, hemostatic and anti-inflammatory agent.

Rhizomes of incense in the package. Photo: www.altaifarm.ru

This decoction or infusion helps and for headache. To do this, they drink 1 tbsp. spoon 4 times a day before meals.

In acute cold apply a collection consisting of 1 part of frankincense leaves, 1 part of elecampane, 2 parts of St. John's wort. To prepare the infusion, you need 1 tbsp. pour a teaspoon of the crushed mixture with 1 cup boiling water, boil over low heat for 20 minutes, insist in a warm place for 1 hour, strain. Take 0.25 cups 3 times a day after meals in hot form, adding drops of sea buckthorn oil to the infusion.

For the preparation of a decoction for external use (parodantosis, stomatitis, etc.) on 1 cup boiling water should be put 2 tbsp. tablespoons of crushed rhizomes of incense, cool, strain. Apply in the form of rinses and douching.

Badan Extract

To prepare the extract of badan need 3 tbsp. tablespoons of dried and chopped roots of frankincense pour 1 cup boiling water and cook over low heat in a tightly sealed container until half of the liquid remains. Take the extract dropwise 3 times a day.

A decoction of incense in folk medicine is used for sedentary baths with hemorrhoids, and a decoction of equal amounts of incense rhizomes and yarrow grass is used for acute cystitis and stones in the bladder. The temperature of the baths is + 37-38 ° С, their duration is the number of procedures

Badan - the basis of Altai tea

And to make aromatic healing tea, add a black leaf of frankincense to the mixture of herbs. The old lower leaves of the plant periodically die off, dry out and turn black. It is these black leaves that you usually pick off at the incense in the spring, when in the garden induce a “marafet” and throw it away. But take your time to do it.

It is from these black leaves that lay all winter under the snow that they prepare very tasty famous Altai tea. Try the tea from the incense, it is really very tasty.

It is these leaves that have the most healing properties. They must be dried and used within two years, adding to tea leaves. They relieve fatigue, both physical and mental, have strong general strengthening properties.

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