Scientific name: Ursus thibetanus
English - Asiatic Black Bear, Himalayan Black Bear
French - Ours du Tibet, Ours à collier, Ours de l'Himalaya, Ours noir d'Asie
Spanish - Oso de Collar, Oso Negro de Asia
Species Authority: G. Baron Cuvier, 1823
The appearance is similar to that of a brown bear (see the description of the Tien Shan bear), but the physique is lighter. The head is relatively small with an elongated muzzle. Ears are very large, widely spaced.
The tail is short, hidden in fur. The claws are large, steeply curved. The hairline is dense, rather high and lush, or more rare and low. The color of winter fur is black, dark brown or tan. On the chest there is a large, sharply defined light spot, elongated in the transverse direction, having a crescent or crescent shape, with the ends of the “sickle” pointing forward.
Distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, North India, China, southeast of Primorsky Krai in the USSR, on the Korean Peninsula, in Japan, on the Indochina Peninsula. Inhabit forests. They hibernate for the winter. Omnivores. The female in the litter usually brings two cubs. The number in recent years has decreased significantly.
Ussuri white-breasted bear
According to the classification of the Red Book - a rare subspecies, the number of which is decreasing from year to year. In the USSR, the northern part of the subspecies range is located.
Appearance, see the description of the white-breasted bear. The subspecies are characterized by relatively large sizes. Body length up to 200 cm. Winter fur is brilliantly black, rather thick, tall and lush. Distributed in the North-Eastern and northern parts of Eastern China and on the Korean Peninsula.
The area in Russia captures the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories. In the north, the range border extends from the Chinese border along the Bureya Range and east to Sovetskaya Gavan. In the area of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, the range breaks.
Inhabit the cedar-deciduous forests of the Manchu type, oak forests and cedar forests with Manchurian walnut and Mongolian oak. They prefer river valleys and adjacent slopes.
Ussuri white-breasted bears willingly climb trees and feed on them. Hibernate in late October - early November. For the winter, they prefer to lie down in the hollows of old trees, usually Maximovich poplars and choosenia. Often also occur in caves and crevices of rocks. They leave the den in the second half of April.
Depending on the condition of the feed, they can travel considerable distances of 200-300 km. In the spring, after leaving wintering and before the appearance of green vegetation, they feed on last year’s cedar nuts and acorns. Insect larvae get.
In May and June, stalks of marten, hogweed, angelica, sedge, oak ovaries, Amur velvet and Manchurian walnut stalks are eaten. In July-August and early September, they feed on the fruits of bird cherry.
In August, in addition, Amur rizema and its bulbs, killer whale, oak ovaries and other plants are included in the food. In September, they feed on acorns, cedar cones, sea anemone, Amur grapes. At the end of September, “nuts” of cedar and acorns are almost the only food.
The race runs from mid-June to mid-August. The female brings two, less often one or three cubs from late December to mid-February, occasionally until early March.
The number of Ussuri white-breasted bears in the Soviet Far East is estimated at 7-8 thousand. “Its decrease is associated with the destruction of man, the destruction of the hollows in which the bear spends the winter, and with the development of man’s habitat.
Protected in the reserves: Sikhote-Alin, Ussuri, Cedar Pad, Lazovsky, Bolshekhekhtsirsky, Khingansky, Komsomolsky.
Photo: Author: Vicpeters Russian Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/
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Red list of categories and criteria: Vulnerable A2cd + 3d + 4d ver 3.1 (in a vulnerable position)
Publication Year: 2008
Evaluation Date: 2008-06-30
Description and features of the Himalayan bear
The size Himalayan brown bear has some differences with ordinary brown, if you compare their external data. There are many significant differences between them that are visible to the naked eye.
On the photo of a himalayan bear it is evident that he has a large head with a pointed muzzle, a flat forehead and protruding ears. The hind legs of the bear do not have as much strength and power as the front ones.
The weight of an adult beast reaches 140 kg, with a height of about 170 cm. The female of this animal is slightly less, its average weight is up to 120 kg, with a height of 180 cm. Animals have brownish-black and black coat color, it is silky and shiny, lush and thick , especially on the sides of the bear’s head.
From this, its front part is visually larger than the back. The neck of the animal is decorated with an original white spot in the form of the English letter V. On the toes of the animal there are long claws of bent and sharp shape.
This form of claws helps the animal to move through the trees without any problems. The tail of the bear, compared with its entire size, is quite tiny, its length reaches about 11 cm.
Himalayan bear climbs trees perfectly
About the Himalayan bear there is a lot of information. The healing properties of their internal organs and the value of their fur have led to the fact that they have long been opened poaching in some regions.
The animal gradually began to disappear from the face of the earth, so it brought Himalayan bear in Red a book for a long time, which helps to at least slightly protect it from humanity.
The poacher who kills this animal is subjected to the most severe punishment. In addition to people, the Himalayan bear also has enemies in the guise of animals.
Often they come into conflict with a brown bear, an Amur tiger, a wolf and a lynx. The threat to life lasts until the animal is 5 years old.
Himalayan bear is often called the "moon" because of the crescent of light wool on the chest
After this, the enemies of the Himalayan bear become much smaller. The salvation for the clubfoot is also the fact that they are more likely to be on the tree and between the rocks. Not every large predator is given to get there.
Himalayan bear lifestyle and habitat
Judging by a description of the Himalayan bear, his woody way of life, he is different from his brown counterparts. These animals spend almost half of their lives on trees.
There, it is easier for them to get their own food and escape from potential enemies. They climb to the top of the tallest tree, about 30 meters high. A bear can easily go down to the ground without much difficulty and in a matter of seconds.
They jump without fear from a tree about 6 meters high. Bears in a tree behave interestingly. They sit between branches, break them off and eat tasty fruits. After this, the animal does not throw out the branches, but spreads under it.
After some time, a large nest is obtained from these branches. The bear uses it to relax. When the weather is calm, calm, you can hear the crack of branches broken by a bear over a long distance. Thus, they build their nests.
Himalayan bears try to meet people very rarely and avoid these meetings in every possible way. Animals simply leave without showing aggressive behavior. Isolated cases were noted when they attacked people.
Hearing the shot, the beast tries to escape. But sometimes in such cases, aggression wakes up in these animals, and they rush at their offenders. Mostly this happens with a bear female who protects her babies.
She takes a decisive step forward and brings her actions to the end result in case the offender tries to escape. The Himalayan bears, like their other relatives, hibernate during the winter season. For this purpose they find the hollow of large trees. Most often and most convenient for them in the hollow of a poplar or linden.
The entrance to this dwelling is usually high, not lower than 5 meters. In order for an animal of this size to fit in a hollow tree should be rather big.
In cases where such trees simply do not exist in those places where the Himalayan bear lives as a refuge for him is a cave, a rock or a root hollow of a tree. White-breasted bears migrate from wintering places to deciduous forest expanses and back. It is characteristic that for transitions animals choose the same route.
These animals have excellent physiological and ethological plasticity. Their behavior is no different from the behavior of bears of other breeds - they do not secrete urea and feces during winter sleep.
All the vital activity of bears, metabolic processes are lower than standard indicators by 50%. Body temperature also drops slightly. Thanks to this, a bear can always wake up easily.
During winter sleep, Himalayan bears significantly lose weight. The second half of April is characterized by the fact that these animals wake up and leave their temporary shelters.
They have perfect memory. It is characteristic that they remember both good and evil. Mood can change in different directions. A bear can be peacefully good-natured, and in time become aggressive and quite excited.
Except for the mating season of his life, the Himalayan bear prefers to lead a lonely secluded life. Likes to live in those places where there is most feed.
They are not alien to the sense of social hierarchy. It depends on the age of the bears and their weight category. This is especially clearly seen during the mating season in animals. Males weighing less than 80 kg cannot always mate with females.
Places where does the Himalayan bear live there are enough. They prefer tall trunk tropical and subtropical broadleaf forests in southeast and east Asia, as well as cedar and oak plantations, places where there is enough food for them. In summer, they climb high into the mountains, and in winter they prefer to go lower.
Himalayan bear prefers to eat plant foods. His favorite treats are Manchu nuts, hazel, cedar nuts, acorns, various wild berries, as well as grass, leaves and buds of a tree.
Their favorite delicacy is bird cherry. Bears can eat its berries endlessly. Sometimes the bears make their way to the apiary and steal the hives along with honey. The fact that they do not drag this stolen hive in order to protect themselves from wasps speaks of their highly developed intelligence.
White-breasted bears collect not only ripe fruits, but also those that have not yet ripened. In this they differ from brown bears. In their feed base there is significant stability. The animal, therefore, can accumulate enough fat, which is sufficient not only for hibernation, but also for the spring period of awakening.
Often animals can pamper themselves with larvae and insects. They do not like fish and do not predate. But never give up carrion. But there is evidence that the bears that live in South Asia can easily attack wild ungulate animals and livestock. Some of them are dangerous to people. This is a strong and agile animal that can kill its victim by breaking its neck.
Breeding and longevity of the Himalayan bear
Mating season black himalayan bear accounts for June-August. The female carries her babies 200-245 days. They are produced by a sleeping bear in a den.
In the photo, a baby Himalayan bear
This mainly occurs in late winter or early spring. At the same time, one or a couple of babies are born. In rare cases, there are 3 or four cubs.
The average weight of newborns at birth is about 400 g. Their growth is slow. At the age of one month, the cubs are completely helpless and defenseless. By May, they are gaining very little weight, it is about 3 kg.
The young generation grows up in 2-3 years from birth. At the same time, they mature sexually. The interval between the birth of babies in females is 2-3 years. In the wild, Himalayan bears live up to 25 years. The length of their life in captivity sometimes reached 44 years.
The article is interesting and informative - "Praise the Internet and the authors of the article." But, as you can often see recently in the internet - the impression is that the authors do not re-read what they wrote, there are grammatical errors, but that is much worse when the author contradicts himself in the article. For example: "White-breasted bears live in areas of 8-10 square kilometers, not really trying to protect him from other individuals, and if there is food, they do not leave the site at all. The rutting period falls on the June-July month, and does not proceed as violently as the brown counterparts. By the way, they, along with tigers, are the only natural enemies of the Himalayan bears. "It is difficult to understand who are the enemies of the Himalayan medals? White-breasted? But it is in this article that it says that the Himalayan bears are called white-breasted. So what are they their own enemies?
Alevtina, I do not at all pretend to be the best nature writer, I write as best I can, I try for the audience. The example you quoted seems to me not entirely correct, since the beginning of the article says that this species of bear has several names. All these names were used in the article. As for your question - the main enemies of the Himalayan bear are brown bear and tiger.
A white-breasted bear is found in several parts of Bangladesh, especially on the Chittagong hills, but its number is small. Between 2008 and 2010, the Bangladesh Wildlife Fund conducted a study of the population of Himalayan bears and found that the species occupies isolated habitats in the southeastern, northeastern and north-central regions of the country.
Three subspecies of the Ussuri bear live in China: U. thibetanus thibetanus, U. thibetanus mupinensis, U. thibetanus ussuricus. They are common in temperate and cold coniferous forests of Northeast China from the Xin'an Mountains to Chang Ba. The Chinese government estimates that there are about 28,000 Himalayan bears in the country.
In Siberia, the range of the white-breasted bear extends from Innokenty Bay along the coast of the Sea of Japan to the mountainous region of Sikhote-Alin. The species is also found along the Amur River near the northern outskirts of Lake Bologna and in the broad-leaved Manchurian forests of the Ussuri Territory. In Russia, there are about 6,000 individuals of the Himalayan bear.
The South Korean Himalayan bear population inhabits deciduous forests in the Alpine region at an altitude of more than 1,500 m north of Cirisano. In April 2018, 14 female bears gave birth to 19 cubs, increasing the wild population of the species in Cirisano to 56 individuals. The National Park Service of the Republic of Korea hopes that by 2020 the population will increase to 150 individuals.