Squad Vesnianki insects photo representatives larva structure classification known from Perm
Vesnyanki, a detachment of primitive insects. Known with Perm. The body is flattened, at the end of the abdomen - a pair of churches. Two pairs of mesh, transparent wings, in the range of 10-80 mm. The head is large, with long antennae. The mouth apparatus is gnawing; in adults it is more or less reduced, often does not function. About 2 thousand species, mainly in the Holarctic, in Russia — ok. 220 species. Adult crownworms live in flowing water bodies, are inactive, some do not fly. In males of a number of species, wings are shortened or absent, in females - normal. years is short, in some species - in early spring. The transformation is incomplete. Eggs are laid at the bottom of fast flowing clean and cold rivers and streams. Larvae are aquatic (in one genus from South America they are terrestrial), carnivorous, develop within 1–4 years; during the period of mass occurrence, they serve as food for fish.
Latin name Plecoptera
Body Vesnyanki elongated, soft, head free, prognathic, with long, multi-segmented antennae, mouth organs weak, reduced, often not functioning, mesh wings, at rest lie flat on the abdomen and the hind pair folds fan-shaped, legs are walking with 3-segmented paws, cerci are long, filiform, multi-segmented, less strongly shortened, larvae in water, similar to adults.
Long, multi-segmented tendrils, a homogeneous chest with its more or less equally developed segments and legs, lack of differentiation of the prothoracic pleurisy into the episternum and epimer, long multi-segmented filiform cerci of most forms are all signs of a primitive organization, which set up spring grass, like cockroaches, at the very base of evolutionary new-winged trunk.
They are unimportant flyers and therefore stay near water bodies, where the life of the larvae takes place. They fly during the day, some hide under stones, etc. According to the degree of development of the wings, some species exhibit sexual dimorphism: males are short-winged, females with normally developed wings. Few species are completely wingless. Larvae, or mollusks, live mainly in flowing oxygen-rich waters, where they stay at the bottom, usually under rocks.
The development of larvae lasts 1-3 years and is accompanied by many molts - up to 20-30. Many breathe with tracheal gills located on different parts of the body, others have skin breathing. Both larvae and adults serve as fish food and are also used in fishing for bait.
They are divided into 2 main suborders: filipalpia (Filipalpia), which have mouth organs functioning in adults and feed on plant foods in the adult and larval phases (unicellular algae, plant debris, etc.), and fine palp (Setipalpia), not on the adult phase, and with predatory larvae. Up to 2,000 species are known that are characteristic mainly of the temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere. About 170 species have been found so far in the territory of the former USSR; the genus Perla is widespread.
Vesnianki (Insecta: Plecoptera) rivers and streams of the Lagonaki Highlands
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution
higher vocational education
"KUBAN STATE UNIVERSITY"
(FSBEI HPE "KubSU")
Graduation qualification work of the bachelor
Subject: Vesnianki (Insecta: Plecoptera) rivers and streams of the Lagonaki Highlands
The thesis is presented on 38 pages of computer text, consists of an introduction, the main part, consisting of 4 chapters and conclusion. The work contains 5 figures and 2 tables. The bibliographic list includes 38 literary sources, including 10 in foreign languages.
Key words: Insects, Vesnyanki (Plecoptera), fauna, ecology, Northwest Caucasus, Lagonaki plateau.
The aim of the work is to study the springworms of the Lagonaki Highlands. During the analysis of literary data, materials were studied on the morphology, biology, ecology, and history of the study of spring flies (Plecoptera).
In 2013, a study was made of the species composition and ecology of springflies in various reservoirs of the Lagonaki Highlands. A total of 9 species from 5 families were identified, 3 species are endemic to the Caucasus. The abundance and preferred habitats of spring grassflies in the study area were determined.
Vesnyanki (Plecoptera) - a detachment of amphibiotic insects. The high species diversity, massive development and widespread occurrence of spring flies in watercourses of different climatic zones, from Arctic deserts in the north to subtropics in the south, serve as a good basis for studying this group of animals in various aspects. Despite the fact that spring flies are large insects and are often found along river banks, not everyone knows them. This is due to the fact that they rarely and briefly fly, are painted in dark colors and lead a latent or sedentary lifestyle, sitting on branches of reed, on the bark of trees growing near the shore and in coastal grass.
The world fauna of spring flies includes more than 2000 species belonging to 15 families, distributed mainly in the northern hemisphere, however tropical countries are studied much weaker than Zhiltsov, 2003. Today, more than 130 species of spring flies are known on the territory of Russia, today the fauna of spring flies of the Caucasus is generally represented 68 species from 21 genera and 7 families of Cherkesov, 2006.
The larvae of small springflies feed on algae, but most of them are predators eating larvae of mosquitoes, midges, mayflies and other small invertebrates. In the adult stage, stoneflies, as a rule, do not eat, i.e. are afags.
Due to their oxyphilicity and stenothermal nature, the larvae of springflies are most sensitive to any type of pollution and, therefore, are used as the main biological indicators of the degree of pollution of waterways. Strengthening human economic activity and the aggravation of the ecological situation determines the relevance of obtaining sound knowledge about the relationship of complex biotic processes occurring within river ecosystems in order to protect and optimally exploit water resources. Identification of taxa and revealing the features of the functional ecology of these aquatic organisms serve as a necessary scientific basis for organizing environmental monitoring of river basins, in predicting the ecological state of benthic communities under anthropogenic impact, and in assessing the quality of water by hydrobiological indicators. Therefore, the presence in the mountain rivers and streams of the evolutionarily formed complex of amphibiont insects is an indicator of the high quality of the water sources of drinking water in Alimov ecosystems, 2000.
The choice of the place of research - rivers and streams of the Lagonaki Highlands, is associated with several circumstances: firstly, the place of research is notable for its significant landscape diversity and the presence of various types of water bodies, and secondly, in the ridge there are protected areas - Kamyshanova Polyana Nature Reserve, and Federal State Institution “Caucasian State Natural Biosphere Reserve named after H.G. Shaposhnikov ”, for which environmental and faunal studies are of particular importance, thirdly, comprehensive studies of representatives of the Plecoptera order have not yet been conducted here, and information on the fauna of this taxon in the North-West Caucasus as a whole is fragmentary. In connection with the foregoing, the aim of this work is to study the species composition and ecological features of springflies in the reservoirs of the Lagonaki Highlands.
To achieve the goal when completing the thesis, the following tasks were set:
. To study the species composition of the springworms of the Lagonaki Highlands.
. Estimate the number of spring flies in various reservoirs of the study area.
. To investigate the similarity of the spring grass population of various water bodies and their preferred living conditions.
1. ANALYTICAL REVIEW
.1 Brief morphological sketch of stoneflies
Adult insects lead a terrestrial lifestyle and are found mainly in the spring, whence their name comes from. These are relatively large insects with dark rather hard covers. Adult insects have a body flattened in the dorsal and abdominal direction, the chest carries two pairs of membranous wings reinforced by a dense network of wings, which at rest they fold roof-like on their back (Figure 1). At the posterior end of the body there is for the most part a pair of long tail filaments. Their hind wings fold fan-shaped under the protection of the front wings, which, however, are only slightly denser.
Larvae have a clearly defined, direct-directed head with well-marked, far-apart eyes. In addition to the eyes, a pair of elongated thin antennas and a gnawing mouth apparatus are clearly distinguishable on the head. The thoracic section consists of three segments - the anteroposterior, mid- and metothorax, each of which carries a pair of legs, and on the dorsal (dorsal) surface of the mid- and metothorax there is a rudiment of the lion's wing. All three thoracic segments are approximately equally developed. Mouth parts are small - adult stoneflies do not feed. The legs of the springies are slender, running, with a 3-segmented foot. Abdomen 10-segmented with a pair of jointed caudal threads (church) at the end.
Mature larvae of males and females differ well - in larvae of males, the rudiments of the genital appendages are clearly visible through the covers of the last abdominal segments, in females only a small notch is visible on the posterior edge of the VIII sternite of the abdomen. Often, secondary gills can be found in the larvae of the springflies, however, none of the larvae of the springflies can have abdominal gills by this sign; they can be easily distinguished from the larvae of mayflies.
Figure 1 - Habitus Plecoptera (imago)
Body spring larvae are similar in body shape to adult insects, but differ in the absence of developed wings, the rudiments of which appear only at the end of the larval period of life (Figure 2). Unlike adult stoneflies, larvae have strong jagged jaws. The larvae of small springflies feed on algae, but most are predators eating larvae of mosquitoes, midges, mayflies and other small invertebrates. Oxygen dissolved in water is breathed by them using tracheal gills, which are rarely leaf-shaped (Nemura), and more often represent bundles of thread-like outgrowths penetrated by tracheas located on different segments of the chest and abdomen of Shiolashvili, 2010. The larvae have long and tenacious legs with a large number hairs. Larvae can run well along the bottom, swim well, but most of the time they spend with their feet clinging to the protrusions of the bottom, watching for prey, i.e. are ambush predators.
Vesnyanki are driving insects; their larvae develop in water. For molting on the imago, they go to land. Usually adults fly weakly; in some, wings are reduced. However, some species swarm along the coast and are able to settle hundreds of meters from the place of breeding. The oral apparatus is gnawing, but in the adult stage, stoneflies, as a rule, do not feed. After mating, the female throws packets of eggs into the water, easily touching her abdomen during the flight of Shiolashvili, 2012.
Figure 2 - Larva of Vesnianka (habitus)
Under stones in mountainous, fast streams, large, up to 2 cm in length, larvae of stoneflies from the family of stoneflies (Perlodidae) are often found. They are very easy to distinguish from mayfly larvae not only in size. All spring trees do not have abdominal lateral gills (if there are gills, then thoracic bushy), at the end of the body there are only 2 tail filaments equipped with short setae. Vesnyanki adapted exclusively to rocky soils, it was not for nothing that the British called them stone flies. Strong and mobile larvae of Vesniankov active and voracious predators. They hunt especially hard for their closest relatives - the mayfly.
Springtime females lay eggs at the end of the abdomen for some time, then, flying above the surface of the water for a short time, immerse the abdomen in the water of usually fast and clean rivers and streams. The eggs are quickly washed off, separated from each other and fall to the bottom, where they get stuck between the stones. The spring eggs are oval or vase-shaped and dark. In some species, for example, true stoneflies, eggs are hatched by the female in whole bundles enclosed in a mucous mass.
The entire development cycle in most springflies lasts a year, in some large species in the northern rivers it stretches for 2-3 or even 4 years. Wintering occurs in the nymph stage, which already has obvious rudiments of the wings (Figure 3). During the larval life, stoneflies shed many times, for example, large squirrel (Perla maxima), reaching a length of 24 mm, shed 22 times Harper, 1994.
Figure 3 - Diagram of the generalized life cycle of stoneflies
Adult stoneflies are inactive, some species lose their ability to fly. It is interesting that males are more often incapable of flying, for example, in the male, black spring flies (Capnia nigra) appearing already in February in the foothills of the Caucasus and Crimea, the wings have the appearance of small scales. Zaika, 2009. And quite recently, in the Andes, such springflies (Megandiperla) were discovered in which adult insects and larvae are completely indistinguishable in their general appearance - adults do not even have wing buds. These spring flies, in contrast to most of the other representatives of the detachment, do not lead an aquatic way of life in the larva stage, but a land one, crawling in the pillows of the moss covering the rocks of Zhiltsov, 2003. However, the places where they live are in the mountains, where it rains daily and where moss always very wet. Interestingly, the difference between the larvae and adults in this species is that the larvae of the trachea system are closed, although they do not have external tracheal gills, and in adults it is opened by spiracles. In constantly humid air, for spring larvae, oxygen supply conditions are more favorable than in ponds, due to which skin respiration is possible without gill growths due to only the surface of the body. In the water, small spring larvae are also found that do not have gill filaments. Larvae of large species, such as the large spring grass, first have only weak rudiments of the gills (large spring, at the base of the third pair of legs), gradually increasing both in number and in size as the Pankov links, 2004.
Consuming plant and animal organics, which, in turn, is the food of river fish, spring grass, along with mayflies, caddis flies and dipterans, play an important role in the trophic chains of the freshwater ecosystems of the Caucasus.
Modern human activity has a devastating effect on ecosystems, reducing the number and diversity of species, reducing the survival of mankind in a globally changing world. Human intervention leads to a change in the habitats of many organisms, and some of them are not able to adapt to a changing environment, which inevitably leads to a sharp change in biodiversity. Of course, this applies not only to terrestrial, but also to aquatic ecosystems.Among the inhabitants of the latter, benthic invertebrates and, first of all, larvae of amphibiont insects, which make up the bulk of aquatic organisms in watercourses, play an important role in maintaining the stability of these ecosystems, participating in processes at all levels of the Zaika trophic pyramid, 2012.
1.3 the History of the study of spring grass (Plecoptera) of the Caucasus
The history of the study of Caucasian spring grass can be divided into three periods:
) 1829-1928gg. - a description of the individual species.
) 1828-1953gg. - The beginning of a systematic study of Caucasian spring trees by A.V. Martynov.
) since 1953. to the present - a fundamental study of Vesnyanka L. A. Zhiltsova.
Prior to the publication of the work of A. V. Martynov, 8 species of spring flies of three families were known in the Caucasus: Capniidae, Perlidae and Perlodidae Guerin-Meneville, 1829-1838, Brauer, 1876, Klapalek, 1912, 1923, Stewart, 1988. The first two types of spring flies The Caucasian Perla caucasica and Perla palllida were described by F.E. Guerin-Meneville in 1838 by Guerin-Meneville, 1829-1838. In 1928, Martynov gave an overview of the families Nemouridae and Leuctridae, first identified by him for the Caucasus, describing 17 new species, among which 12 belonged to the Nemouridae family.
Systematic studies of the fauna of spring grass in Russia were begun in 1948 under the guidance of V. Ya. Levanidov. The results of these studies formed the basis of the determinant of imagoes of Vesnianok Zhiltsov, 1989, Zapyokina-Dulkeyt, 1988 and annotated catalogs Levanidova, 1979, Zhiltsova 1967, Levanidova, 1977, 1982, were studied only to the genus.
A study of the structure and patterns of functioning of river ecosystems in Russia determined the need for creating regional determinants of the larval stage of development of representatives of all orders of amphibiotic insects. The result of many years of work to identify the larval and imaginal stages of development was the determinant of the larvae of the spring flies of Russia and adjacent territories Zhiltsova, 1969, Teslenko, 1970, 1997 and a series of articles that describe the water stage of mass and rare species of spring flies Teslenko, Zhiltsova, 2003, Zwick, 1975, Teslenko, 1999 ,. In the process of work, 1 genus and 7 species new for science were described; for the first time, 3 genera new for the Russian fauna Teslenko, 2003, Teslenko, 1999 were noted.
In 1950, B.I. Balinsky described 10 new species from the Caucasus: Filchneria balcarica Balin, Jsoperla pulchra Balin, Jsoperla caucasica Balin., Chloroperla katherinae Balin., Chloroperla teberdinica Balin., Leuctra dispinata Balin., Leuctra balcaronem balcarica balcarica balcarica Balin. Balin., Protonemura gladifera Balin., Protonemura viridis Balin., 1950 from Karachay-Cherkessia, Balkaria, Svaneti Zhiltsov, 1981.
The works of A.V. Martynov and B.I. Balinsky were dedicated to the fauna of spring grass on the northern slope of the Main Caucasian Range. Vesnianki of the Lesser Caucasus remained barely affected by research. The literature contained information only about the larvae of springflies found in the Kura River and its tributaries, in particular, in the Bakurianka River. A major step in the study of Caucasian spring grass was the research of L. A. Zhiltsova, which has been systematically conducted since 1953 and continues to the present Zhiltsova, 2003.
In 1953, a group of employees of the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, composed of S.G. Lepneva, L.A. Zhiltsova and laboratory assistant A.K. Chistyakova began the study of Caucasian springworms. At the same time, springflies of several rivers and streams of the upper Kura basin were studied: Borjomi, Gujaretis-Tskhali, Bakurianki, for which 29 species of springflies from 12 genera and 7 families were found. The found species were indicated for the Lesser Caucasus for the first time, and some of them were new for the entire Caucasus. Thus, the genus Brachyptera Newp, 1842 was not previously known to the Caucasus either in adults or in the larvae of Zwick, 1971.
As a result of an expedition conducted in 1953 for the fauna of Caucasian springflies, 64 species belonging to 15 genera and 7 families were identified: Taeniopterygidae — 5 species, Nemouridae — 24 species, Leuctridae — 14 species, Capniidae — 5 species, Perlodidae — 6 species, Perlidaee - 5 species, Chloroperlidae - 5 species. Moreover, 25 species were new to science. These studies have confirmed the position on the richness of the fauna of the Caucasian spring grasses, in particular, the Nemouridae family.
The next work of Zhiltsov, 1964 is devoted to the Caucasian species of the Leuctridae family. It gives definitive tables (for males) of 16 species of Leuctra of the Caucasian fauna, and also 5 species of this genus are described, previously described insufficiently and accurately by Klapalek, 1912. For example, a high degree of endemism of the Caucasian spring grass fauna is shown: out of 16 species, 14 were endemic and only 2 are widespread. Most of the species belong to typical mountain and alpine species.
Long-term systematic studies of spring flies, conducted by L.A. Zhiltsova in all the main regions of the former USSR, Yu.I. Zapekina-Dulkeyt in Siberia and I.N. Levanidova in the Far East, allowed a fairly complete study of the tribal and species composition of the fauna of Vesnianok (70 genera and about 350 species). However, to date, species are still found in collections that are new to science and fauna of Russia. So, the 1986 gatherings in Baku provided interesting materials: a new species for the fauna of the former USSR was discovered Leuctra aspoeckorum, 1976, previously known only from northern Turkey; in addition, females of this species Zhiltsova, 1966 were first collected and described. In the works of 2003-2004, the larvae of the genera Perla (P. caucasica, P. pallida) and Isoperla (I. bithunica) Cherchesova, 2006 were first described.
In addition, a review of the fauna of spring grassflies of North Ossetia was published and the features of its zoogeography were considered: today for the river basin. Terek 34 species from 7 families and 12 genera were registered, that is, about half of the number of species identified for the entire Caucasus Cherchesova, 2006, Zhiltsova, 2003. Once again, it was confirmed that the fauna of spring plants of the Caucasus is highly endemic (12 species are endemic, 15 - subendemic known from Asia Minor and less often from Iran, and 1 species, except for the Caucasus, is represented in the fauna of Crimea).
To date, the spring fauna of the Caucasus is represented by 68 species from 21 genera and 6 families. In the first place by the number of species is the Nemouridae family, with 24 species from 3 genera and 2 subfamilies. The second place belongs to the Leuctridae family - 17 species. In third place is the Perlodidae family - 7 species from 4 genera, in the 4th - the Capniidae family (6 species, 3 genera) and Perlidae (6 species, 4 genera), in the 5th - the Chloroperlidae family (5 species, 4 genera), and on the 6th - this. Taeniopterygidae (4 species, 2 genera). However, the study of the plecopterofauna of the Caucasus is still relevant: the territory of the North-West Caucasus remains poorly studied, in addition, the larval phases of development of most Caucasian species (more than 50) have not yet been described.
2. NATURAL AND CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAGONAKSKOGNAYA
Approximately the highlands are limited by the following geographical coordinates: between 39 ° 39 '- 40 ° 03' east longitude and 44 ° 14 '- 43 ° 57' north latitude. In terms of plan, it resembles the appearance of an equilateral triangle, one of its peaks rests against the Belorechensky pass and points to the south. The base of this triangle coincides with the northern border of the highlands. The length of the highland along the meridian passing through the Guam Gorge (in the north) and the Belorechensky Pass (in the south) is 34-35 km. This is approximately the center line, which divides it into almost two equal, western and eastern parts. By a parallel running in the middle part of the highlands, through the middle part of the Zhelob gorge (in the east) and the peak of the town of Montenegro (in the west), its width is 20-21 km. The distance along the parallel passing through the northern outskirts of Lagonaki, from the southern outskirts of the village of Chernigov to the southern outskirts of the village of Kamennomostsky, is 35-36 km.
The boundary of the highlands in the relief can be traced relatively well and is located between the rivers. White and its left tributary p. Pshekhs, whose sources are lost in the folds of the Fisht mountain group, and are approximately two kilometers apart. Here is the Lagonaki border: from the north, it runs parallel to the south of the villages of Chernigov and Nizhny Novgorod to the southern outskirts of the village of Kamennomostsky, the eastern border starts from the mouth of the Rufabgo river along the Belaya river to the village of Dakhovskaya and further along the eastern foot of the Azish-Tau and Stone Sea ridges, crossing gradually along the Guzeripl, Armenian and Belorechensky passes to the south, which is traced at the foot of the town of Fisht, along the Belorechensky - Chugursan pass line, the western border passes from the Chugursan pass along the line along the western foothills Fischt, Pshekha-Su, Tuba, Messi ridge to the col between the mountains of Sugar Loaf and Montenegro, and then along the south-western slopes of the plateau of Montenegro to the Wolf's Gate on the river Pshekha to the southern outskirts of the village of Chernihiv. The total area of this territory is about 700 km2.
The highlands are not located directly on the Main Watershed, but are adjacent to it from the north by the Chugursan Pass, which has a certain effect on its physical and geographical features.
Administratively, the highlands are located in the Republic of Adygea and the Krasnodar Territory, mainly located in the Absheron and Maykop districts, and only a small part south of the Fisht – Oshten line belongs to the Khostinsky district of Sochi.
Relief and orography. The relief of the highlands is due to a number of physical and geographical factors, which determined its diversity. A feature of the highland relief is that it is located on the border of the transition from mid-altitude mountains 600-900 m high with relatively sloping forested slopes to mountains with heights exceeding 2000 m with outlines of a typical alpine relief.
The most important factor affecting the climate of the territory described is the topography, while it should be borne in mind that the Western Caucasus is located in temperate latitudes. The elevation of the relief above sea level, the slope and exposure of the slopes greatly change temperature, solar radiation, pressure, wind conditions and air humidity. As you know, with rising upward pressure decreases (by 1 mm by 11-15 m) and at an altitude of 2000 m it averages 555 mm. Hg. Art., on a healthy organism, this change does not have a noticeable effect. But when climbing more than the specified height (and there are enough such places in the highlands), it begins to affect, as well as the thinness of the air, causes signs of mountain sickness (apathy, fatigue, drowsiness, malaise, dizziness, nausea).
The atmospheric turbidity also decreases with height, therefore, the intensity of solar radiation, in particular ultraviolet, increases. At altitudes of about 2500 m in clear skies, solar radiation in summer is more intense by 37%, and in winter by almost 50% than above sea level. During a camping trip, this circumstance should be especially taken into account in order to avoid sunburn and overheating. In addition, in the mountains, the cloudless sky seems darker, almost purple, and sunlight is especially harsh. And if the underlying surface is made of snow or ice, you can go blind, so sunglasses should be worn on such routes. By the way, the intensity of the bright color of most mountain flowers (alpics and subalpics) can be explained not only by the transience of summer, but also by the influence of increased solar radiation.
At the same time, the average maximum temperatures in January in Dakhovskaya + 4.7 ° С, Guzeripl + 4.4 ° С do not yet speak of a favorable temperature regime that allows you to travel when you want. The maximum temperature in the highlands is observed in the summer (July - August). The average monthly temperature in July in Dakhovskaya is + 19.5 ° С, in Guzeripl + 18 ° С. But with an increase in absolute heights, the temperature decreases (on average, usually by 5 ° -6 ° per 1000 m): at the Lagonaki camp site and the tourist shelters “Armyanskiy”, “Fisht”, “Tsitsa”, “Vodopadny” the average air temperature August is + 13.5 ° С, and at Belorechensky and Cherkessky passes a little lower, + 12.5 ° С. The average wind speed in summer is the lowest in comparison with other seasons and is about 2 m / s.
3. MATERIAL AND RESEARCH METHODS
.1 Research Material
The material for this work was the collection and research of spring grass (Plecoptera) carried out in June-July and at the end of August 2013 in the Kurdzhips, Mezmay, Belaya, Gorelaya Balka rivers, as well as in stagnant and low-flowing ponds on the territory of Kamyshanova Polyana Nature Reserve. A spring and a stream were examined on the territory of the biostation, samples were taken from the Bolshoi Falls, Lesser Falls, Forest Lake and the stream flowing from it, as well as an unnamed stream, the Instructor's Creek and the upper Belaya River in the territory of the Fisht tourist shelter of the Caucasian State natural biosphere reserve named after H.G. Shaposhnikov. Thus, the main places of study were reservoirs of various types and located at different heights. To study the species composition of spring grass in all these reservoirs, qualitative and quantitative collections were carried out. During the research period, more than 200 larvae of springflies and adults were collected and processed.
Places of research in the Lagonaki Highlands and in the territory of the Caucasian State Natural Biosphere Reserve: 1 - Bolshoi Falls, 2 - spring on the territory of the biostation, 3 - Maly Falls, 4 - forest lake 1, 5 - p. Gorelaya Balka, right tributary, 6 - p. Burning beam, left sleeve of the left tributary, 7 - p. Gorelaya Balka, right sleeve of the left tributary, 8 - p. Gorelyaya Balka, left tributary, 9 - spring reservoir near Bazov, 10 - Forest Lake 3, 11 - stream, from Forest Lake 2, 12 - urine on the way to Maly waterfall, 13 - urine near Forest Lake 1, 14 - urine near the biostation , 15 - a stream in Shanghai, 16 - p. Kurdzhips, 17 - a stream on the right bank of the river. Kurdzhips, 18 - upper river. Kurdzhips, 19 - instructor slit stream, 20 - upper river. White.
The fishing was carried out at twenty sites. Figure 4 shows the various water bodies of the study area.
Figure 4 - Author's photographs of the sites of studies of Vesnyanok: A - Kurdzhips river at the place of research, B - forest lake No. 1 at the place of research, C - Bezymyanny stream at the place of research, G - Belaya river at the place of research (tourist shelter Fisht)
3.2 Research Methods
Hydrobiological nets, bottom scoops, washers, collection containers for animals, large tweezers, small tweezers, identification tables, 4% formalin served as collection tools.
For the quantitative collection of benthos, a Sadowski design bentometer was used, with which it is convenient to work in shallow, fast-flowing rivers. Before fixation, samples collected by the bottom grab were strained in portions in a Levanidov bucket or basin, 1982. For this, part of the sample was placed in a bucket or basin, filling it 1/3 with water and stirring with rotational movements. The agitated fraction was poured into the landing net. The elutriation process was repeated until the water with which the sample was washed did not become transparent. Quantitative samples of benthos were taken with a Sadowski design bentometer with a bottom coverage of 0.07 m², a height of 50 cm. The bentometer is convenient to use in shallow, fast-flowing rivers. At each station, 2-3 samples were taken at a time. Zoobenthos samples were collected and processed according to generally accepted methods.
High-quality sampling was carried out using such hydrobiological tools as a net, a scraper, the choice of which depends on the size of the watercourse, its depth and speed. For a more complete account of the species composition of watercourses, manual collection of macrobenthos from individual boulders and larval skins was used.
Gatherings of adult springflies were made in the immediate vicinity of their breeding places, that is, water bodies. The manual collection of adults was practiced - species were collected using an exhauster, caught by a net. The collection of adults was preceded by a thorough examination of near-water objects - stones. Adult spring flies are choked with ether in stains, after which they are mounted on entomological pins. Upon arrival from the station, the material was processed: fixation of the material with 4% formalin, labeling with the location, date, weather conditions.
The number of quantitative samples of benthos at the station at each sampling period was at least 2. The number of stations and, accordingly, samples was increased due to the degree of heterogeneity of the watercourse. Samples were taken in such a way that all types of soils and flow rates in a given section of the river were covered. There was no need to conduct studies of the entire watercourse as a whole. It was enough to concentrate on a certain section of the river - reach-roll. Studies on the river fauna of the upper and middle reaches showed that the combination of recession is a structural element of the river system Stewart, 1988. Moreover, a well-pronounced longitudinal distribution of animals takes place within the structural unit of recession.
Sample collection was carried out mainly during the growing season, i.e. from spring (after ice melting) to autumn. The study of the species composition, distribution and quantitative development of bottom organisms was carried out by various methods and different fishing gears.For mountain and foothill rivers with rocky soil, quantitative benthos samples were taken either using a bentometer or by collecting macrobenthos.
The most widely used in the practice of hydrobiological research is I.M. Levanidova. The device is a rectangular frame with a capture area of 0.3x0.4 m2 and a height of 0.4 m. The three side faces of the frame are tightened with plankton gas N 15, and a bag of plankton gas N 23 with a length of 1.5 m is sewn to the fourth face. Bentometer tightly set on the ground to a depth of not more than 0.3 m. The stones that are inside the bentometer are taken out into a bucket or basin, which are then thoroughly washed, and the filler existing between the stones is stirred up. The fraction collected in the bag is transferred to a bucket of water. The leaves, sticks, and stones that have fallen into the bag are washed, and the resulting precipitate is washed through the net-rinse. The main disadvantage of the Levanidov bentometer is the volume of samples, requiring a large investment of time for their processing.
Sampling by collecting macrobenthos from individual boulders according to the Schroeder-Zhadin method does not take some of the benthos due to the infauna that lives in the soil under the base of the boulder, but gives a real idea of the benthos biomass in river sections, the bottom of which is almost completely formed by Levanidov boulders, 1989. To account for benthos by the Schroeder-Zhadin method, stones are collected on a section of the river, each of which is removed from the water in a net and placed in a bucket. When working, the collector brings the net to the stone, then with one hand lifts the stone, and the other brings the net under the stone, thus removing it from the water with less loss of animals. The stone is thoroughly washed in a bucket. The animals are filtered through a net and fixed with 4% formalin. To recalculate the collected animals to a specific area, it is necessary to take into account the projection area of the stones. To do this, the stone is laid on thick paper in the same way as it was lying on the ground, and encircled with a pencil. Then the projection of the stone is cut out and weighed. Knowing the weight and volume of paper used, the projection area of the stone is determined and the number of organisms collected per 1 m2 of bottom area is calculated.
When comparing the quantitative and qualitative composition of benthos collected using a bentometer and the Schröder-Zhadin method on one of the model rivers, very close average annual biomass values were obtained: 19.1 and 18.0 g / m2, respectively, Levanidov, 1977.
Quantitative samples of benthos on large rivers were carried out by bottom grabs of various designs. The standard model of the Petersen bottom grabber with a capture area of 0.025 m2 was usually used. At each point, at least 2 samples were taken. After grabbing the soil with a bottom grab, it is placed in a basin, into which the sample is then released. When sampling on dense sandy and pebble soils, rod bottom scoops were used. The capture area of these devices is 0.01 m2.
Processing of the collected quantitative samples was carried out at the biostation and at the university. Before disassembling, formalin neatly merged, and the sample was filled with water. Dismantling was carried out under an MBS microscope and using binoculars. The animals were selected with thin tweezers and distributed into groups. In each group, the total number of animals was calculated. After that, the data obtained were summarized and, thereby, the number of all organisms in the sample was determined. Then the material was determined by Zhiltsov, 1966, Tsalolikhin, 2001.
Vesnianki (Insecta: Plecoptera) rivers and streams of the Lagonaki Highlands
In order to study the species composition and distribution of stoneflies on the territory of the Lagonaki Highlands, we examined various stations where their location was assumed. As the studied watercourses, we selected both flowing and standing water bodies. A brief description of the sites examined is given below.
Characterization of the sampling station.
The first station is the Big Waterfall. The pond is partially lit. The bottom is rocky. Water temperature 5 ° C, temperature at the time of sampling 17 ° C. A large university waterfall is located on the Gorelaya Balka stream, the length of the waterfall is more than 20 m. The selection method is a net, watering and manual collection. As a result, 16 representatives of this detachment were discovered.
The second station is a spring on the territory of the biostation. A spring at the Biological Station Kamyshanova Polyana. The reservoir is partially lit. The soil is rocky, large stones are found. The water is clear, the depth at the collection point is 15 cm. The water temperature is 5 ° C, the air temperature at the time of sampling is 19 ° C. Representatives of this detachment were found, in the amount of 12 individuals.
The third station is Small Waterfall. Located on the river. Mezmayka. Partly cloudy. Air temperature at the time of sampling 16 ° C, water temperature 6 degrees. The bottom is rocky. Coordinates: 44 ° 10'813 "N and 40 ° 03'28" E. Height is 1100 meters. Material was collected in the amount of 15 special.
The fourth station is Forest Lake No. 1. The reservoir is swampy, overgrown with vegetation. Depth is negligible. Water temperature 9 ° C. Air temperature at the time of sampling 20 ° C. Representatives of the order Plecoptera not found.
The fifth station is the Gorelaya Balka River, the right tributary. Very full flow, the water level is unstable. Due to the rains it becomes full-flowing. Water temperature 5 ° C, air temperature at the time of sampling 16 ° C. The bottom is rocky. The water is slightly cloudy. Coordinates: height 1082 m, 44 ° 11'047 "N and 40 ° 02'395" E. 23 individuals were found.
The sixth station is the Gorelyaya Balka River, the left sleeve of the left tributary. Gorelaya Balka River - the left tributary of the Mezmayki River, is a small stream. The bottom is rocky. Water temperature 5 ° C. Air temperature at the time of sampling 19 ° C. As a result of research, 17 representatives of the group of spring flies were found.
The seventh station is the Gorelaya Balka River, the right sleeve of the left tributary. Mainly cloudy. Water temperature 5 ° C, air temperature at the time of sampling 16 ° C. The bottom is rocky. The water is clear. As a result of research, 15 representatives of the group of spring flies were found.
The eighth station is the Gorelaya Balka River, a left tributary. The Gorelaya Balka River is the left tributary of the Mezmayki River. The bottom is rocky. Water temperature 5 ° C. Air temperature at the time of sampling 17 ° C. As a result of research, 16 representatives of the group of spring flies were found.
The ninth station is a spring reservoir near the Bases. The pond is fully lit. On the shores of the frog agaric, cattail grow. The bottom is silty. The water temperature is 12 ° C, the air temperature at the time of sampling is 16 ° C. The maximum depth is 100 cm. The sampling method is the net. As a result of the studies, the material was not found, because environmental conditions are not typical for representatives of this unit.
The tenth station is Forest Lake No. 2. The lake is triangular in shape. The maximum base length is 40 meters. The water is heavily polluted with lime, the lake is old. The bottom is silty. Water temperature 12 ° C. Air temperature at the time of sampling 23 ° C. Coordinates: 44 ° 11'363 "N and 40 ° 02'023" E. As a result of the studies, the material was not found, because environmental conditions are not typical for representatives of this unit.
The eleventh station is a stream leaving Lake Forest No. 2. The reservoir is partially lit. The soil is rocky. The water is clear. Depth at the collection point up to 20 cm. Water temperature 5 ° C, air temperature at the time of sampling 16 ° C. 13 representatives of the detachment were discovered.
The twelfth station is a pee on the way to Maly waterfall. Mochak dimly lit. Water is stagnant, polluted. The bottom is silty. As a result of the studies, the material was not found, because environmental conditions are not typical for representatives of this unit.
The thirteenth station is a pee near Forest Lake. Water is stagnant, polluted. The bottom is silty. The bucket is surrounded by vegetation. Water temperature 12 ° C. As a result of the studies, the material was not found, because environmental conditions are not typical for representatives of this unit.
The fourteenth station - a pee near the biostation. The bottom is silty. Water is not running, polluted. Height is 1240 meters. As a result of the studies, the material was not found, because environmental conditions are not typical for representatives of this unit.
The fifteenth station is a creek in Shanghai. Partly cloudy. Air temperature at the time of sampling 17 ° C Water temperature 6 ° C. The length of the stream is 250-300 meters. The average width of the stream is 40 cm. Three categories of sites were noted: in the distal part, a swampy area, then a flowing part and a drying area. All three categories of creek were investigated, as a result of which the material was not detected.
The sixteenth station is the Kurdzhips River. The river originates in the area of the Lago-Naki massif, is a left tributary of the Belaya River. Air temperature at the time of sampling 22 ° C, water temperature 7 ° C. The collection height is 1307 meters above sea level. The bottom is rocky. The water is running, clean. As a result of research, 17 representatives of the group of spring flies were found.
The seventeenth station is a stream on the right bank of the Kurdzhips River. The first right-bank rock walls were overgrown with forest. The water is running. The bottom is rocky. Air temperature at the time of sampling 20 degrees. Water temperature - 7 ° C. It was found 18 representatives of the squad of spring flies.
The eighteenth station is the headwaters of the Kurdzhips River. This is a mountainous, fleeting river flowing along the northern slope of the Main Range of the Greater Caucasus Habitats Species and abundance, specimen Nemura martynovia Capnia nigra Capnioneura caucasica Perla caucasica Perla maxima Isoperla grammatical Isoperla caucasica Leuctra 01 colus 30usa colus. Spring in the territory of biostation 0054021003. Small waterfall 3215001124. Forest Lake No. 10000000005. Gorelyaya Balka, right tributary1255114226. Burning beam, left sleeve of the left tributary2124222207. Burnt Beam, right sleeve of the left tributary 0153023108. Burning beam, left tributary 2042122219. Spring reservoir near Bazov00000000010. Forest Lake No. 200000000011. A stream exiting Forest Lake 10330321012. Mochak on the road to Maly Million00000000013 Waterfall. Mochak near Forest Lake00000000014. Urine near biostation00000000015. Creek in Shanghai. 00000000016. Kurdzhips River 22235111017. Creek on the right bank of the Kurdzhips21212222118 river. Upper reaches of the Kurdzhips river 22332221119. Creek Slit Instructor 00300020020. Upper Belaya River220503211
These absolute data were mathematically processed in order to determine the average abundance for each species and the magnitude of the error. In general, Perla caucasica and Capnioneura caucasica species prevail in the reservoirs of the study area, the number of which is 2.25 + 0.50 and 1.85 + 0.42, respectively. Leuctra collaris are characterized by the minimum average abundance - it is 0.40 + 0.15 individuals.
In order to obtain information about the similarities and differences between different water bodies of the studied area, we reproduced a cluster analysis using the fauna of the spring grass inhabiting them. The initial data were the presence and abundance of stoneflies, presented in table 2. The analysis was carried out using the full communication method (Euclidean distance). Clustering results are shown in Figure 5.
Table 2 - the Average number of spring grass in the studied reservoirs
VidChislo nabl.Srednee, ekz.Minimum, ekz.Maksimum, ekz.OshibkaNemura martynovia200,850,003,000,230Capnia nigra200,650,002,000,200Capnioneura caucasica201,850,005,000,420Perla caucasica202,250,007,000,500Perla maxima200,650,005,000,280Isoperla grammatica201,050,003,000,250Isoperla caucasica201,350,004,000,270Leuctra fusca200,850,003,000,210Leuctra collaris200, 400,002,000,150
In accordance with the figure, stations 4, 9, 10, 12-15 were clustered according to the principle of the absence of spring flakes - this association included reservoirs of the same type. All of them are standing or weakly flowing - pebbles or forest lakes. In these reservoirs no spring flies were found.
At a distance of association 5, the branch of the cladogram of the springflies of the instructor slit joined here - only 2 species with a very low abundance were found here. We associate the poverty of the fauna of this reservoir with a high degree of pollution, because The instructor’s slit is a section of the permitted tourist camp on the territory of the KGBPZ and experiences a strong anthropogenic pressure, as people here wash clothes, wash, wash dishes, etc.
Figure 5 - Dendrogram of similarity of the studied reservoirs of the Lagonaki Highlands by species composition and number of spring flies: 1 - Bolshoi Falls, 2 - spring on the territory of the biostation, 3 - Maly Falls, 4 - forest lake 1, 5 - p. Gorelaya Balka, right tributary, 6 - p. Burning beam, left sleeve of the left tributary, 7 - p. Gorelaya Balka, right sleeve of the left tributary, 8 - p. Gorelyaya Balka, left tributary, 9 - spring reservoir near Bazov, 10 - Forest Lake 3, 11 - stream, from Forest Lake 2, 12 - urine on the way to Maly waterfall, 13 - urine near Forest Lake 1, 14 - urine near the biostation , 15 - a stream in Shanghai, 16 - p. Kurdzhips, 17 - a stream on the right bank of the river. Kurdzhips, 18 - upper river. Kurdzhips 19 - instructor slit stream, 20 - upper river. White
At a union distance of 7.5, various flowing water bodies of the Kamyshanova Polyana Nature Reserve cluster at approximately the same height and are characterized by more or less the same hydrological regime: flow, channel width, temperature and bottom type.
An interesting fact was the high degree of similarity between the spring streams of different tributaries of the Gorelaya Balka and Kurdzhips rivers, which combine at a distance of pool 5. The flowing streams of springs and streams in the reserve have slightly more significant differences, as well as the river adjacent to this cluster. White.
The fauna of Vesnianka Bolshoi Falls, which is similar to that of the right tributary of the river, is quite distinctive. Gorelaya Balka, which is much closer to it by location than other tributaries: the Great Falls itself is located on the river. Burned Beam after the merger of all its tributaries.
Analyzing the foregoing, it can be argued that on the territory of the Lagonaki Highlands, springflies prefer to live in flowing rivers with a fast current and their large tributaries, they prefer the bottom of the river formed by outcrops of rock and rocky areas. Moreover, such stations differ in significant similarity of species composition. Significantly less species diversity is characterized by contaminated water bodies. Vesnyanki were not found by us in low-flowing and standing reservoirs with muddy water and (or) a muddy bottom.
For the first time, the fauna of spring grassflies of the Northwest Caucasus in rivers with different feeding patterns has been studied in a comparative aspect, the species composition of spring grassflies in lithoreophilic rivers has been established, and the influence of environmental, including anthropogenic, factors on the density and distribution of springflies has been traced.
The research materials will be used in lectures and practical classes in hydrobiology, ecology and entomology, as well as in the preparation of term papers and qualifications of students and masters of the Department of Zoology of KubSU.
In 2013, we conducted a study of the species composition and ecological features of springflies in various reservoirs of the Lagonaki Highlands. For the study, generally accepted methods of collecting larvae, observing, labeling, collecting, and processing quantitative data were used. The results are formulated in the following conclusions:
. The species composition of the springworms of the Lagonaki Upland includes 9 species from 5 families, which is 13% of the known fauna of the Caucasus. The three species found are endemic to the Caucasus: Isoperla caucasica, Nemura martynovia, Perla caucasica.
. Perla caucasica and Capnioneura caucasica species prevail in the water bodies of the Lagonaki Highlands, the number of which is 2.25 + 0.50 and 1.85 + 0.42, respectively. Leuctra collaris are characterized by the minimum average abundance - it is 0.40 + 0.15 individuals.
. The cluster analysis showed a significant similarity in the population of spring grass of all flowing reservoirs of the reserve “Kamyshanova Polyana”, as well as such large water arteries as the river. Kurdzhips and r. White.
. In the study area, springflies live in fast-flowing rivers and their large tributaries; they prefer the rocky bottom of the river. Significantly less species diversity is characterized by contaminated water bodies. Vesnyanki were not found by us in low-flowing and standing reservoirs with muddy water and a muddy bottom.
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Catching the imitation of spring flies
If you try to look into the past and inquire about the situation with imitations of springflies for our ancestors, whose work was the formation of a realistic style of knitting, it turns out that the situation is quite confusing. In the UK - the cradle of fly fishing - the first mention of flies that mimic adult spring flies can be found in fairly ancient sources. For example, if you believe the Courtney Williams' Dictionary of Trout Flies, the Dictionary of Trout Flies, then the first meaningful literary reference to a fly imitating springtime adults dates back to the 15th century, or rather, 1496 belongs to Lady Julian Behr partners (Dame Juliana Berners).
This is the chapter “The Tretyse of Fysshyny with an Angle” from the Book of St. Albans, written and published by Lady Juliana, the abbess of one of the British women's monasteries . Given that the descriptions of flies given by Juliana Berners are rather vague and can be interpreted in different ways, you can’t “push the sticks” so far back, but in Alfred Ronald’s book “The Entomology of Fly Fishing” (“The Fly Fisher's Entomology ”), published in 1836, we can find not only an illustration (No. 12) demonstrating a fly imitating the flyweed imago, but also a description of the flyweeds as such. It should be recalled that it was Ronalds who can be considered the founder of modern applied fly fishing entomology, since he was the first to compare real insects with artificial flies that used to be in those days, while Ronald correctly used the entomological terminology adopted in those years. Altogether, Alfred described 46 different insects, including stoneflies (No. 12). After 61 years, Frederick M. Halford (F. M. Halford) published “Dry Fly Entomology”, which in addition to the “main theme” considered the best dry flies that mimic mayflies, caddis flies and, of course, spring flies. Halford, who actively promoted dry fly fishing, had a very significant influence on the fly fishing community throughout Europe: for a long time, until the end of the first decade of the century, she actively caught trout and grayling on dry flies and “added” to classic wet flies, while completely not paying attention to insect larvae and their imitation. The theme of dry flies imitating adult spring flakes (and caddis flies) in British literature of the 20th century was continued by Martin E. Moseley in the book “Dry-FLy Fisherman's Entomology”, published in 1921. Martin's manner of presentation and approach are close to half-Ford ones. An exceptionally interesting aspect of Martin’s work is that he was one of the first to focus on the phenomenon of mass hatching of insects, and his attachment to the use of well-defined artificial flies imitating them, and not just describing insects and flies as such.
Subsequently, in the old literature periodically there are descriptions of flies imitating spring flies, but only adults, winged. Regarding the presence of ancient flies themselves, preserved in private collections, then, according to the famous English amateur entomologist and knitter Oliver Edwards, ". sad, but no matter how you look, in the ancient leather "fly" purse there is nothing but slender rows of spiders and wet feather flies with wings (spiders and winged wets). ". However, Edwards himself indicates that he was trying to find not imitations of springflies in general, but it was recognizable imitations of the larvae of these insects (which in itself is rather strange, since it is well known that nymph fishing in England was officially recognized thanks to the work of George Skuez (GEM Skues ), and before him, it was simply not accepted to catch any larvae on an imitation of any). So, all flyworm flies of the Old World imitated winged flies and belonged either to dry or to wet flies according to modern terminology. As was the case with fishing on imitation of spring grass in the USA in the 19th century, literary sources are silent, at least I could not find anything. At the beginning of the 20th century, the United States was still heavily influenced by British fly fishing traditions, which were also lagging. The most popular direction of fly fishing was dry fly fishing. In addition, fly fishing in America was significantly inferior in popularity to spinning. Actively catching on simple simulations of the nymphs of spring trees in the USA began somewhere in the 30s of the last century, at least, judging by the printed sources.
For example, the well-known American professional fisherman, knitter and fishing journalist Edward Hewitt quickly realized the productivity of imitations of springflies larvae. Several issues of the popular fishing magazine “Field and Stream” for 1933 published a series of his articles under the general title “Nymph fly fishing”, from which it follows that Hewitt was seriously carried away by fishing for nymphs, including spring flies. So serious that the whole season of 1933 and a few more were fished exclusively on nymphs. Edward even visited the United Kingdom solely for the sake of meeting and getting to know Skuse.
An interesting series of imitations of the larvae of large spring flies was invented and connected by the American knitter Charles Defoe (Charles DeFeo, 1891-1978). He used for knitting nymphs the material traditionally used by knitters of feather salmon classics - “nail” feathers from the mane of a jungle rooster (Gray Jungle Fowl - Gallus sonneratti). Combining feathers from the mane and the body of a jungle rooster with multi-colored peeled feathers from the peacock's tail, dubbing and integumentary feathers of a partridge, created a unique series of large nymphs connected on streamer hooks.
Another interesting variety of spring flies is salmon flies. They appeared in the USA in the first half of the last century, knitted on hooks No. 6-8 (trout and salmon) and were intended for catching Atlantic salmon. Many of them had very conditional similarities with living prototypes - freckles (as well as mayflies and caddis flies), and some can be considered imitation. The appearance of flies of this type can be explained by the presence in some parts of the USA of spring grassflies of very large sizes (up to 5 cm) and by the fact that the Atlantic salmon, for which such flies were intended, continues to feed on the rivers. One of the greatest enthusiasts of trout salmon flies (for catching Atlantic salmon), who had their own prototype of real insects, was Preston Jennings, which will be discussed in our magazine.
Modern traditions of knitting artificial flies that imitate spring flies at all stages of their development are considered in the second part of the article in the next issue of the magazine.
Tip:flat golden lurex
Thickening (butt):ostrich black feather beard
Winding:oval golden lurex
Body:brown silk on top of a flat golden lurex
Legs:brown cock feather
Wings:segments of the tail feather of a golden or hunting pheasant
A comment: The fly was invented by Preston Jennings as an imitation of the Leuctridae family of springflies. Designed to catch steelhead and Atlantic salmon.
Orange Stone Creeper
Hook:salmon No. 2 or larger
Tip:flat golden lurex then yellow silk
Winding:oval golden lurex
Body:the back is orange silk, the front is brown undercoat.
The beginnings of the wings:"Nail" feathers from the mane of a jungle rooster, trimmed
Legs:brown cock feather and guinea fowl feather
A comment: Fly invented by Preston Jenningson (Preston Jennings). The term creeper in the name means that it imitates the larva of stoneflies.
Sulphur stone nymph
Hook:with straight long handguard, for wet front sight
Tail:several stiff beards of a cock feather from a scalp, fawn
Tip:flat silver lurex then orange silk
Winding:lacquered awn of a white feather with a scalp of a rooster
Breast:peacock tail beard
The beginnings of the wings:the top of the small integumentary feather of the jungle rooster (from the edge of the mane or body), is tied flat
Legs:cock feather with scalp fawn
Hook:No. 8 - Зх Long
Tail:a bunch of beards of a cover feather from the chest of a golden pheasant
Thickening:ostrich black feather beard
Body:dubbing thread with filler from the undercoat of a fur seal or polar bear, sand color
Wing:tail from a gray squirrel tail
Legs:quality feather from a scalp of a cock, coloring Grizzled Gray
Hook:streamer, with a long forearm, 4x long
Tip:very narrow silver lurex, 4 turns
Tail:Golden Pheasant Crest Feather
Thickening:black woolen thread or dubbing
Winding:thin oval silver lurex
Body:embossed (embossed) silver lurex
Wings:a pair of feather tops with a cock saddle, Grizzly coloring
Throat (legs):red feather barbs (false beard)
Hook:Allround type, in this case - SASAME Carp Revo No. 8
Tail:two biots (brown)
Back cover:strip of brown raffia
Body:red-brown SLF - dubbing, in this case - Dave Whitlock's SLF Dubbing
The beginnings of the wings:strip of brown raffia
Breast:rough mix dubbing like Dave Whitlock's Dark Stone
Legs:partridge cover feather barbs, natural color
Antennas:pair of brown biots
DeFeo's Golden Stone Nymph No. 1
Hook:rough, with a long forearm, 3-4x Long
Tail:a bunch of beards of a red integumentary feather from the body of a golden pheasant
Body:the substrate is white silk, on top of it is a continuous winding with four peeled and bleached, and then painted in white (1), brown (2) and yellow (1) colored peacock tail beards. As an option - painted awnings of cock feathers from the scalp. The beards of the pen are well varnished.
The beginnings of the wings (rear pair):"Nail" feathers from the mane of a jungle rooster
Legs (rear):two turns of partridge coverslip, natural color
Breast Wrap:dark brown or black silk thread
Breast:light yellow hare dubbing, over - winding
The beginnings of the wings (front pair):"Nail" feathers from the mane of a jungle rooster
The beginnings of the wings:the top of the small integumentary feather of the jungle rooster (from the edge of the mane or body), is tied flat
Legs (front):two turns of partridge coverslip, natural color
A comment: This fly is a representative of a whole generation of flies invented by Charles Defoe. Their common distinguishing feature is the presence of feathers from the scalp or body of the jungle rooster.
Appearance of freckles
As a rule, springflies are small or medium in size, only some species with spread wings reach a length of up to 10 centimeters. The body is soft, elongated. There are 4 transparent wings on the body. The lower wings in a calm state they are folded in a fan, and the upper (also transparent) fold in a house. The back of the body ends in a pair of long tail threads.
Winged mole rat.
The color is most often brown. At present, 3833 species of stoneflies are distinguished, with 120 of them being fossil species.
Vesnyanki got its name because of its lifestyle.
Larvae are brownish-gray or yellow-brown in color. Since the larvae live in water, this color is well combined with the color of the bottom, which makes insects invisible.
These insects lead a hidden lifestyle. They are inactive. Mostly they hide in bushes or grass. Noticing a freckle in nature is far from easy. If you scare an insect, then it most often crawls away, and does not fly away.
Vesnyanki are secretive insects.
Often they are found near water, on stones and plants. The spring larvae are very sensitive to the purity of water, and recently, due to the pollution of water bodies, these insects have disappeared from many habitats in which they were previously the basis of the diet for fish. The yellow-legged flyweed can live in stagnant water bodies with a low oxygen content.
One of the largest European springflies is a yellow-tailed duckling, whose body length reaches 3 centimeters.
Propagation of Freckles
Spring flies of larvae appear in spring. The adult insect continues to molt, and molt ends in spring and summer. Females lay eggs in water. The eggs are glued together and look like lumps. Larvae develop from eggs, which in appearance resemble adults, but they have gills instead of wings.
Vesnyanki prefer to live close to running waters.
Spring larvae prefer mountain streams and other running shallow waters. Larvae are very voracious predators. They hide between stones and look out for victims - various small insects.Larvae in this state live for about a year. Over time, they form similar wings, and they are selected from the water by adult insects. Adult insects need a small amount of food for life, and some species can do without it. Adult freckles drink water.
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