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View: Falco columbarius Dernik

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Status:

Endemic of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In the region, it nested in the past, with insufficiently clarified modern distribution and subspecies status.

Description:

Dimensions with a daw. The wings are relatively short, sharp. Sexual dimorphism in coloring is well pronounced. The male on top is pale gray, with a buffy-reddish coating on the back. The head is reddish. Bottom pale ocher or white with narrow dark longitudinal streaks. A female of sand or clay-reddish tone with wide transverse streaks on top and narrow, brown, longitudinal below.

Inhabits the dry steppes, where it occurs along river valleys, in lake basins, meadow depressions. Usually nests on the ground among thickets of grassy-shrubby vegetation, sometimes on bushes there are branches, meadowsweet, birch 1.5-5 m from the ground (1). Clutch of 2-6 eggs. It feeds mainly on passerines of open landscapes - larks, skates, wagtails, small waders, less often - rodents, reptiles, insects.

Spread:

Steppes of the southeast of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, South-Western Siberia between 49 ° and 54-55 ° N and 55-80 ° East (1).

In the last quarter of the 19th century, the steppes of the southern regions of the Orenburg region were noted as an ordinary bird. Nesting pairs were found in the floodplain of the river. Ural near Nizhinka, on the river Ileku At the mouth of the river. Karabutaka (Akbulaksky district), near the villages of Grigoryevka and Trudovoy (Sol-Iletsky district), in birch copses along the river. Vetlianke (2). In addition, marked on the river. Shybynda, the left-bank tributary of Ilek in the Sol-Iletsky district (3).

In the 40s of the XX century, the steppe derbnik still nested in the valley of the middle course of Ilek near the mouth of the river. Karabutaka (1.4), as well as in the former Buran region (5). Modern information about the nature of the stay in the region is extremely scarce. On 05.31.79 and 06.19.79 a female steppe derbnik was observed in the right-bank valley of the middle reaches of the river. Urtaburti 15 km north-east of the village. Mesopotamia (Belyaevsky district). The habitats in which the bird was kept, and its behavior indicate the possibility of nesting. On spring migration, derbniks are regularly found in the valley of the middle course of Ilek. Some migrants undoubtedly belong to the steppe subspecies. Of the five derbniks recorded here in April 1989, 1990, and 1992 (a section of the valley between Zhulduz and Sagarchin stations), two are reliably identified as F. colimbarius pallidus: 04.29.89 - a female typical of the steppe subspecies of pale color and 04/27/92 - male with ash gray top (6). This form also occurs in the Orenburg steppe Trans-Urals. In late April - early May 1995, single hunting derbniks, among which females of the steppe subspecies were identified, were observed near the Davlenkol and Obalykol lakes in the Svetlinsky region (7). 07/04/95 a solitary hunting derbnik male was recorded in the steppe among pine pegs near the village. Åland in the Quarken region (8).

Thus, the steppe derbnik is found in the Orenburg region as in the past. Part of the registration indicates the possibility of its nesting in the valley of the river. Ileka, the Ural-Ilek interfluve and the Orenburg steppe Trans-Urals.

Strength and limiting factors:

Current numbers are not exactly known. According to a rough estimate, it does not exceed hundreds of individuals. There is no doubt its strong decline in the 20th century.

The main reason for the disappearance of the steppe derbnik is the degradation of nesting sites: shrub formations in mesophilic biotopes - floodplains of rivers, lakes, meadow depressions, and steppes.

Security measures:

It is proposed for inclusion in the Red Book of the Russian Federation as a locally widespread, decreasing steppe endemic. A survey of possible nesting sites is necessary in order to clarify the current status and distribution in the area. As general measures - the protection of habitats - meadow depressions, shrubs and grassy vegetation in lake basins and floodplains. Propaganda of protection.

Sources of information:

1. Dementiev, 1951, 2. Zarudny, 1888, 3. Zarudny, 1883, 4. Nikolaev and others, 1977, 5. Darkshevich, 1950, 6. A. Davygor, personal. Obs., 7. S. Kornev, personal. Commun., 8. L. Korshikov, personal. message

Compiled by A.V. Davygor. Red Book of the Orenburg Region, 1998.

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Species: Falco columbarius Linnaeus = Dernik

Appearance: Small falcon (the size is smaller than the pigeon Columba livia). The tail is long, straight cut. The wing is relatively short, pointed. The wing of the derbniks of both sexes and subspecies from below with abundant dark mottles, due to which it looks much darker than the bottom of the body (this is the difference from the kestrels). Weakly pronounced narrow whiskers are present in males and females, the former are brighter, due to the fact that they are gray and framed by a white color of the throat and cheek. The legs are yellow.

The male of the nominal subspecies (F. columbarius aesalon) is grayish from above, with dark longitudinal strokes visible only close up, with dark brown ends of the wings and tail. The bottom is reddish with dark longitudinal streaks, the red color of the bottom reaches the neck and its sides, forming a characteristic incomplete collar. The throat is white. Males of the steppe derbnik (F. columbarius pall />

The female is noticeably larger than the male. The female of the nominal subspecies is dark brown above, with a bluish bloom and red mottles, visible only near, buffy with brown spots from below, a wing with brown fly-wings. The color resembles a saker in miniature. The female of the steppe derbnik is reddish-buffy with numerous dark-brown streaks on top, whitish with red spots from below. On the white throat of females, a small brown longitudinal variegation is noticeable. Tail with 5 distinct stripes, both bottom and top, with an end strip wider with light bordering along the edge.

The weight of males is 0.125-0.235 kg, females are 0.160-0.311 kg, length is 25-30 cm, the wing of males is 19.1-20.8 cm, females are 20.9-22.4 cm, wingspan is 50-69 cm.

Young ones are similar to a female, but darker on top and with fewer speckles underneath. The legs are yellow.

Down chicks in the first outfit are white, in the second - greyish-white.

The female of the nominal subspecies from the saker (Falco cherrug) is small in size, from the female kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) brown, and not a red tone, the absence of bright spotting on the back.

The female of the steppe subspecies from the female kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is distinguished by the color of the top of the wing: plain with the back (not dark brown) of the wing end. Another characteristic feature of the coloration of female derbniks is the lesser banding of the tail: the female derbnik has 5 wide brown stripes on the tail, and the female kestrels have 8-10 black color, and they are thin, except for one very wide at the end of the tail. Upon closer examination, females of derbniks also exhibit longitudinal striping in the throat, while in kestrels, the throat is purely white, without stripes. The male - differs from the male kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) with gray, and not a red back, from the quail (Accipiter nisus) - with a sharp and narrow wing, a relatively narrow rounded tail, longitudinal stripes on the bottom of the body (not a striated bottom), a tail with no dark transverse stripes along the general background and a thick end strip.

Habitat

A widespread species nesting with the maximum abundance, mainly in the forest tundra and northern taiga, as well as their mountain counterparts. In the Urals, Altai, and in the Sayan Mountains, it often nests in the mountain tundra. In the Southern Urals, in the Trans-Urals and Western Siberia, the steppe derbnik nests in the steppe and forest-steppe habitats.

In the forest-tundra, grasshopper nests in valley larch forests and sparse forests along watersheds, sometimes penetrating deep into the tundra along the outlier mountains and rocky outcrops of rivers.

In the northern taiga, it gravitates towards vast swamp complexes and river valleys.

In the middle taiga, it mainly nests in large sphagnum bogs or extensive swampy clearings, and is found in smaller numbers in river spruce forests. In Siberia, it penetrates large sphagnum upland and transitional bogs up to the forest-steppe.

In the southern part of the forest zone, derbnik is confined to river valleys or large forests with a mosaic of swamps and clearings, where it clearly gravitates to areas of spruce forest.

In the mountains of the Urals, the favorite nesting biotopes of dernik are crooked forests, mountain meadows and laid out alpine tundras with rocky outcrops. It inhabits similar biotopes in the mountains of the Altai-Sayan region. Moreover, everywhere in the mountainous regions it is practically absent in the forest belt separating the tundra and the steppe.

In the steppe and southern forest-steppe regions, derbnik gravitates toward treeless or sparsely forested river valleys, often with rocks, and is found in smaller numbers in lake basins, deciduous pegs, and fringes of island and ribbon burs.

Jacks

Derbnik arranges nests in a wide variety of places.

In the forest belt, it most often occupies the structures of corvids (Corvidae ssp.) On pines, spruces and larches, although in extensive swamps it often nests on moss bumps. Nests are also known, which were located in the open half-hollow of a huge birch, on a growing pile of cutting residues and on an eversion, among a forest swamp.

Where there are rock outcrops (in mountain and steppe regions), it often nests in rock niches. Moreover, it arranges nests both in the rocks along the banks of the rivers, and in the niches of the outliers among the tundra. In the tundra quite often nests on the slopes of ridges or their peaks directly on the ground, among thickets of round-leaved birch, cedar dwarf pine and shrubs.

In the steppe and forest-steppe, it nests both in structures of corvidae (Corvidae ssp.) On birches, aspen and pine trees, so on rocks and on the ground on the slopes of river valleys or beams. In the latter case, the nests are located under cover of bushes or canopies from the fin.

The height of the buildings on the trees occupied by derbniks varies from 2 to 23 m, usually 7-16 m. When nesting on conifers, the structures located in the upper part of the crown or on the very top of the tree are selected. Nests on the rocks are always located in niches at an altitude of 1 to 70 m, usually 10-40 m from the foot of the cliff. When the nest is located on the ground, as a rule, a site is selected that rises 0.5-10 m from the bottom of the valley or the main surrounding space.

Derbnik is perhaps the only falcon in which there is a tray device in the nest. Different couples have a different approach to the improvement of the nest. Some birds do not improve the egg-laying area at all. This, as a rule, is typical for derbniks laying eggs in the construction of corvids. Although in this case, there are couples bringing bundles of grass, moss and twigs to the nest. In some cases, the lining is purely symbolic, in other cases, as a result of such activity, the tray acquires a more or less constant diameter of 14-16 cm and a depth of 2-3 cm. Birds nesting on the rocks, in most cases, dig a hole in the ground covering the bottom of the niche, with a diameter of 14-20 cm, a depth of 1-3 cm. Sometimes bundles of grass are placed on the bottom of the tray. The latter is more characteristic of birds nesting in the steppe regions on the earth along the slopes of river valleys, gullies and dams.

In clutch 3-5, most often 4 eggs. The color of the eggs is from ocher to brown with a very dense spotting, from brown to reddish-brown, covering from 70 to 95% of the main background. Sometimes eggs are spotless. Egg size: 35.0-44.0 x 27.5-34.5 mm, an average of 39.59 x 31.59 mm.

The birds in the clutches are very tight. Scared fly in circles, scream, but do not attack. Sometimes there is a behavior of "withdrawal" from the nest.

The distance between the nests of different pairs in dense nesting groups varies from 0.5 to 1.5 km, in the less saturated from 1.5 to 5 km. Steppe derbniks nest in 3-10 km of steam from a pair.

Life traces

Derbnik is an ornithophagous, and insects and rodents in its diet occupy a much smaller share than those of the cheglok and kestrels, respectively.

It is typical for derbnik, as well as for quail (Accipiter nisus), to pluck prey in elevated places away from the nest before carrying it to the chicks. As a result, very few feathers of victims accumulate at the nest, but they are constantly abundantly strewn with bribes. Typically, such additives are used stones, outliers, stumps, stacks, etc.

The remains of food are torn apart small passerines, from which paws and wings remain. Of the wings, part of the fly is usually torn out.

Pogodki are cylindrical, small, slightly smaller in size than those of the sparrowhawk - 2.0-2.5 x 0.8-1.2 cm.

Identification Methods

In derbnik to a lesser extent, a typically falconry prey is manifested. Usually, this falcon hunts around shrubbery on a low-level flight, or lies in wait for the prey, sitting on a broom, not high above the ground, and therefore, the percentage of detectability of this species on ordinary walking routes is much lower than other small falcons.

The best results are obtained during periods when chicks hatch at derbniks (June), as adult males become loud and localized by voice. During this period, one often observes a peculiar ritual of feed transfer. Unlike the chegloks, in which the female flies out to meet the male, and the prey is transferred in the air, the derbnik male, sitting on the broom, makes invocation cries and the female flies out and takes prey from him. After the take-off, screams begin to scream actively.

When searching for nests of grasslings nesting in buildings of corvids on trees, they do the same as searching for similarly located nests of other falcons. Nursery nests located on the ground, especially in the mountain tundra, where the microrelief is uniform and it is difficult to localize the most nest suitable site, are difficult to identify. In this case, only a nest search with a dog can give good results. Rock massifs, in which nesting grounds are likely, are examined by continuous combing, as in the case of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

Sokal-drymluk (early - Dzernnik)

The whole territory of Belarus, in the Vitebsk region. nests in

Brest region only on flights, wanderings and wintering.

Falcon Family - Falconidae

In Belarus - F. c. aesalon, however, an independent subspecies F. c. was described from specimens of grasshopper nesting in the Pskov region and Belarus. alaunicus, subsequently synonymous with F. c. aesalon. The taxonomic affiliation of Belarusian derbniks requires additional research.

A rare nesting migratory and wintering species, nests mainly in the north of Belarus; in other parts of the republic it occurs during migrations, seasonal migrations and wintering. The southern border of its breeding range passes through the territory of the republic. It lives in all areas, with the exception of Brest (however, it was also registered there in the Ivatsevichi district in the past, but this registration requires confirmation). It is more often found in the Belarusian Lakeland.

Small, relatively short-winged falcon. The male has a head top and tail feathers gray, the bottom is light ocher with a dark longitudinal pattern, feathers are brown, “pants” are reddish. Bill is bluish, claws are black, waxen and legs are yellow. The adult female is brown with rusty rims of feathers, its underside is buffy with brown longitudinal streaks. Young birds are colored similar to an adult female, but darker. The weight of the male is 142-215 g, the female is 200-255 g. The body length (both sexes) is 27-35 cm, the wingspan is 56-69 cm.

In the Belarusian Lakeland, it inhabits the outskirts of vast upland bogs (sphagnum pine forests), mainly ridge-ridge and ridge-lake complexes, as well as edges of pine plantations in the cultural landscape. At the southern border of the nesting area, it adheres to small coniferous and mixed forests, bordering open spaces of meadows and fields.

The derbnik settles in separate pairs, which in the most favorable places can often be located at a distance of 2-3 km from the other, the minimum distance between neighboring pairs is 1.5 km.As a rule, in a small upland bogs and abandoned peat bogs with an area of ​​500–700 ha, one pair of grass hen breeds each. In the late 1970s. derbnik began to disappear at the nesting site from the cultural landscape of the Belarusian Lake District (edges of pine copses in open spaces). In recent decades, he no longer nests in this biotope. According to the monitoring of 2012, derbniks nested on natural bogs (4 pairs) and on developed and flooded peat bogs (3 pairs). In the upland marshes, all the nests were located in open areas - “cleaners”, and in peat bogs on peat bogs alternating with quarries filled with water. All occupied nests were artificial. Two nests engaged in derbniks for the second year in a row.

In 2014-2017, for the first time in 40 years of observation, the grasshopper did not nest in the developed and abandoned peat quarries. No redistribution of nesting pairs was also noted, since in the most stable nesting biotopes (large bogs) there is no increase in the density of nesting of this falcon. There is a decrease in the number of this rare species for Belarus and the degradation of its population in the southern part of the breeding range. Over the course of 50 years, the range of grasshopper has changed from a solid to an “island”, these birds remained nesting only in large bogs.

In the most stable nesting areas, birds are recorded already around mid-March. In early April, the males are already holding at the nests. Birds sit in empty nests and clean the tray where their small, linear feathers can be found. After April 20, birds actively flow, at the same time copulation occurs. Current flights are a series of mutual chases in the area of ​​the nest, on which birds often sit down, all this is accompanied by active vocalization.

The voice - a quick "cake-cake-cake" - emits, as a rule, near the nest.

The nest does not build, but, as a rule, occupies the structures of gray ravens, often a raven. Usually derbniks for nesting occupy last year’s old nests, but sometimes fresh buildings from gray crows are also repulsed. Uses their nests sometimes for several years. At the same time, he selects nests on the peaks of relatively low (4-8 m, occasionally up to 12 m) pines, sometimes spruce. Based on materials collected in the nesting seasons of 2008-2017. in the Vitebsk region, the height of the nodule nests was 0-12 m, an average of 5.4 ± 0.35 m. The depth of the tray (in the nest of the gray crow) is 6 cm, the diameter is 15 cm. Until recently, it was believed that in the upper bogs In the forest zone, derbniks nest on the earth in very rare cases. However, it turned out that the nesting of derbnik on the ground among the raised bogs is not so rare. It should be noted that when an alternative choice is possible, birds prefer to nest in corvid nests on trees, since nests on the ground are often ruined by predatory mammals.

In full clutch 3-5, usually 4 shortened rounded eggs. In clutches in 2012 in the Vitebsk region, 4 to 5 eggs were recorded, an average of 4.83 ± 0.16 eggs per clutch.

The shell is fine-grained, dense, in non-laden eggs without luster. Its color varies greatly, especially the main background. It can be buffy, brownish-yellow or grayish-white, sometimes with a pinkish tinge. The sizes and color of the spots, strokes, and strokes that make up the pattern are variable: deep, as a rule, blurry, grayish-pale brown, superficial - light or dark brown, brown or red-brown, occasionally black. Usually spotting is so thick that it masks the main background. Often one of the ends of the egg is darker due to the concentration of spots on it. Egg weight 20 g, length 40 mm (38-43 mm), diameter 31 mm (30-33 mm).

Egg laying begins in the first decade of May, in some years a little earlier (end of the third decade of April) or later (mid-May). Eggs are laid at intervals of 36–48 hours. Hatching does not begin with the first egg, but, in the case of clutch of 4–5 eggs, with the third. There is always only one brood in a year. The mason incubates for 26-30 days mainly by the female, which the male feeds during this period. The same amount of time (27-33 days) the chicks spend in the nest before departure.

The success of reproduction in all pairs of derbniks under control in 2012 was 100%. From 4 to 5 chicks were recorded in broods, an average of 4.37 ± 0.18 chicks and 3 to 5 broods, an average of 4.25 ± 0.25 brood per brood. One egg turned out to be a “talker” and one half-feathered chick fell out of the nest onto the ground, where it was eaten by a predatory mammal.

Both birds take part in feeding the chicks, but the female spends much more time on the nest with the chicks than the male. On the site where the young are fed by their parents, the broods last a very long time. In mild winters, individual individuals of winter grass wintry, adhering to the agrolandscape.

Small birds are the main source of food for dernica, less often it catches rodents and insects. The basis of nutrition for derbniks in 1991–2002 in Poozerye, small passerines accounted for 81.1%, and at the species level, the first place in prey belongs to the starling - 18.3%. Sandpipers occupy the second place in the range of food for derniks - 12.6%, and it catches non-flying chicks even of such large species as Curlew. When examining the nests in 2012, only small birds of the Vorobyin order were recorded as prey.

The minimum distance between adjacent pairs of derbniks,

nesting in one swamp, equal to about 1 km. Derbniki do not shun communities of other birds: one pair nested at the border of large colonies of blue-headed and common gulls (Chernetskiy Mokh), and the other within the colony of gray-headed gulls (Obol). At the same time, derbniks undoubtedly benefited from such a neighborhood, since, actively defending their colony from large feathered predators, gulls also protected nests of derbniks.

In turn, derbniks that do not nest near colonies of gulls themselves act as protectors of other birds. At a distance of 5–30 m from 70% of the nodules, from one to three pairs of vortexes nested. In one case, the Vyahiri built a nest on the same pine as the derbniks, only 1.5 m lower. Apparently, this phenomenon is due to the fact that, while protecting its nest from corvids, derbnik is a kind of "watchman" for the vyakhir nest. In addition, a mallard nest was found 15 m from the derbnik nest.

They are not afraid of derbniks and the neighborhood of potential enemies: 50 m from their nests were nests of gray ravens, and 300–350 m were nests of raven, cheglock and ospreys. On June 21, we observed how a female derbnik successfully drove an osprey flying from its nesting area.

Nowadays, the main competitor of derbnik for prey and nests on high bogs is the cheglok. Periodically noted conflicts between derbniks and chegloks are presumably related to the phenomena of kleptoparasitism, when more powerful chegloks try to take prey from derbniks. There are cases when females of derbnik were captured right on the nest by goshawks.

The number in Belarus is estimated at 300-350 pairs with a tendency to decrease. The number of species in the Belarusian Lakeland decreases: 200-220 pairs in 2014 (from 220–250 pairs in 2011), and the breeding range in Lakeland takes on an “island” character. However, it was previously indicated that the abundance of the nesting part of the population of grasslands of the Lake District fluctuates over the years. But, nevertheless, the areas of constant nesting are very stable and in favorable years they are occupied, and not new. There were 2.5 slots for each active nest.

It has been included in the Red Book of Belarus since 1981. Since riding bogs are both a breeding and hunting biotope of derbnik, threats to the peregrine falcon are also true for this species. The almost complete disappearance of the gray crow, the main supplier of nests, from the riding bogs leads to the nesting of part of the pairs on the ground. The main threats to the species are drainage, peat extraction and summer fires in high bogs, as well as the predation of a raccoon dog and a fox when nesting grass hens on the ground.

The maximum age recorded in Europe is 12 years 8 months.

Description

A small falcon, smaller than a dove. Compared to a falcon, similar in size, it is more stocky, the tail is shorter, the wings are shorter and sharper. Body length 24–33 cm, weight 125–235 g (males) and 160–300 g (females), wingspan 50–69 cm. The head is relatively large, “trousers” on the legs are poorly developed. The female is noticeably larger than the male.

Description. Males and females are well different. An adult male is bluish on top with black narrow barreled mottles and a buffy collar, below is pale ocher, with small dark barreled streaks. Gray hat, "mustache" on the ocher cheek is barely outlined. The tail from above is monophonic, gray, with a wide dark apical stripe and a narrow white border. The female is grayish-brown on top with small dark and light strokes and with a gray tint, light underneath with a buffy plaque and with large longitudinal and swept spots. "Us" on the cheek is better developed than that of the male. Most females also have a light collar that separates the brown cap and brown back. Tail on top with distinct transverse stripes. The young bird is similar in color to a female, but the top is darker and less mottled; In flight, the male looks monotonous from above, with wings striped below, the female and young ones are mottled both from above and from below. The waxen, orbital ring and legs are yellow at all ages, dimmer in young birds. The color varies greatly geographically - very bright birds are found in arid areas, and very dark in wet areas.

It differs from other small falcons in the presence of a collar, a shortened tail with a straight, rather than a rounded sawn-off shotgun. The female (especially the light-colored steppe subspecies F. c. Pallidus) can be confused with the female of the common kestrel due to the buffy back and cap in combination with a grayish tart. However, the female derbnik has uniform clearly defined transverse stripes on the tail (a wide apical stripe stands out from the kestrel), in addition, it differs noticeably from the kestrel in proportions and manner of flight, more similar to the manner of the sparrowhawk. The flight of dernik is maneuverable, often low above the ground, on half-folded wings, in addition, the dernik is not soaring. It differs from a sparrowhawk in any age outfit by a shorter tail, pointed wings, shortened legs, dark eyes.

Spread

It lives throughout the forest-tundra, forest and forest-steppe zones of the Northern Hemisphere, but in Western and Central Europe, with the exception of Scandinavia, Iceland and the British Isles, it does not nest. Most common in northern taiga and forest-tundra, southern isolated subspecies are sporadic, rare. Winters only a little south of the breeding range - in the south of the temperate zone, in the subtropics, rarely in the tropics.

The image of life.

The inhabitant of various landscapes from the tundra to the desert. Prefers open areas interspersed with woody vegetation. Migratory, relatively rare bird.

It nests on the ground, on rocks, on trees in the nests of other birds, sometimes it builds a nest itself. Clutch in May - early June, consists of 3–6 eggs with reddish-brown dense variegated eggs.

Voice - jerky "ke-kek-kek." It usually hunts in low-flying "shaving". It feeds on small birds (skates, larks, wagtails, etc.) and rodents. Due to the small number of harm does not bring, is subject to protection.

It differs from a female cobby with a monochromatic head with a back (not red) head, young from a female steppe kestrel in the south of the range with black claws and smaller sizes.

Biology

It prefers woodlands, forest edges, outskirts of marshes, rough terrain, in the steppe - clefts, forest belts, overgrown beams. It avoids continuous dense forests. A specialized small bird hunter, however, in many areas, rodents make up more than half of the diet, manage sandpipers, and occasionally catch bats. Sometimes hunts in pairs. Very maneuverable, like hawks chasing prey in the air, crowns of trees and shrubs, on the ground. It flies to nesting sites in April-May. Territorial pairs settle in the nests of other birds in the trees; in treeless tundra, the female lays eggs directly on the ground, in a secluded place under a bush or stone. In the clutch there are 3-5 brick-red or ocher eggs, incubation lasts up to 5 weeks, feeding the chicks in the nest - up to 4 weeks. Both partners incubate and feed the chicks equally. The first downy outfit of chicks is white, the second is grayish-white. At the nest, the birds are very restless and noisy, sometimes aggressive. Departure takes place in August - September.

Sources of information

A complete guide to birds in the European part of Russia. In 3 parts. Part 1. S. I-30. Authors: E.A. Koblik, Y.A. Redkin, M.V. Kalyakin, V.V. Morozov, I.S. Smetanin, S.A. Kouzov S.M. Kosenko, H. Groot Kurkamp, ​​V.K. Ryabitsev, D.R. Khaidarov, V.V. Kontorschikov, M.V. Melnikov, P.S. Tomkovich, V.Yu. Arkhipov.

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